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Microprocessors through the Ages A brief history of the microprocessor Thomas G. Cleaver University of Louisville Department of Electrical and Computer.

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Presentation on theme: "Microprocessors through the Ages A brief history of the microprocessor Thomas G. Cleaver University of Louisville Department of Electrical and Computer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Microprocessors through the Ages A brief history of the microprocessor Thomas G. Cleaver University of Louisville Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering October 15, 2012

2 YearMotorolaIntelNotes <1970The Dark Ages First microprocessor. 4-bit. Add/subtract only transistors. 108 kHz clock speed First 8-bit processor Better 8-bit processor Synertek 6502 (Apple II, Pet, Kim I, Commodore 64). Zilog Z80 (TRS 80) – Tomahawk cruise missile. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak

3 YearMotorolaIntelNotes : 8-bit data bus, 16-bit registers; used in IBM PC (1982). 8086: 16-bit data bus, 16-bit registers : 16-bit data bus, 32-bit registers; used in LISA (1983), Macintosh (1984), Amiga (1985), Palm Pilot PDA (1996), TI-89 calculator (1998), space shuttle Cache memory : Still 16-bit data bus and registers : 32-bit data bus and registers. IBM PC introduced. Bill Gates.

4 YearMotorolaIntelNotes More cache, faster : 32-bit address bus, 32-bit data bus. Microsoft Windows introduced More cache, faster, on-board coprocessor PentiumSuperscalar, superpipelined. 1997PowerPCPentium II PowerPC: Abandons CISC and introduces RISC architecture 1999Pentium III Power Mac introduced, using PowerPC. 2000Pentium IV Ultrapipelined, 1 GHz 2001Itanium64-bit

5 YearMotorolaIntelNotes 2003PowerPC G5 PowerPC G5: 58 million transistors, 2 GHz, 64-bit registers and buses. 2004Motorola spins off Freescale and stops making series microprocessors. 2006Core 2 Solo & Duo 64-bit, duo has 2 processor cores, 4 MB level 2 cache, 253 million transistors, 3 GHz. 2007Core 2 Quad 4 processor cores. 2009Core i7, Proto- type Core i7: Up to 4 processor cores, 2-3 GHz, 6-8 MB cache. Prototype: 48 processor cores, 1.3 billion transistors.

6 Microprocessor feature size and its effects YearIntel ChipFeature Size Operating Voltage Notes microns15 V1 micron = m microns5 V microns5 V 1997Pentium II350 nm5 V1 nm = m 1999Pentium III250 nm2 VPower density issues 2006Core Solo65 nm1.5 V?Quantum tunneling 2007Dual & Quad45 nm1.2 V nm0.85 V nm?

7 Power in VLSI Chips


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