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SC07, 11-14-07 Stephen Oliver, VI Chip Inc. +1 978 749 3256 From the 380V DC Bus to sub-1V Processors: Efficient Power.

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Presentation on theme: "SC07, 11-14-07 Stephen Oliver, VI Chip Inc. +1 978 749 3256 From the 380V DC Bus to sub-1V Processors: Efficient Power."— Presentation transcript:

1 SC07, 11-14-07 Stephen Oliver, VI Chip Inc. soliver@vicr.com, +1 978 749 3256 soliver@vicr.com From the 380V DC Bus to sub-1V Processors: Efficient Power Conversion Solutions SC07, Reno NV, 11-14-07

2 SC07, 11-14-07 2 Abstract Without a major architectural review, data centers may consume 100 Billion kWhr by 2011. i Additionally, inefficient power and cooling techniques may be the downfall of Moores law. ii One efficiency improvement proposal iii is for the adoption of high voltage DC distribution to enable the AC – 384V stage to be bypassed and the downstream sub-systems (or blades) to be fed directly from the data center distribution busses. This paper represents a follow-on step and proposes high efficiency, high power density power conversion solutions from the HV bus down to processor and low-/medium- and high-power loads. A baseline sub-system is established with a total load of 1320W: –6x processors (1V, 120A) –6x memory (1.5V, 50A) –Miscellaneous loads (12V, 12.5A) Potential conversion steps considered are 380V-12V-1V and 380-48-1V with bus converter, synchronous buck converters and factorized power regulators with sine amplitude converters. Efficiency, power density and annual electrical running cost comparisons are presented. i.Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency (p56), U.S. EPA ENERGY STAR Program, Andrew Fanara, August 2, 2007 ii.The Invisible Crisis in the Data Center: The Economic meltdown of Moores Law. Kenneth Brill, Uptime Institute, 2007 iii.DC Power for Improved Datacenter Efficiency, Ton (Ecos), Fortenbery (EPRI) & Tschudi (Lawrence Berkeley National Labs), January 2007.

3 SC07, 11-14-07 3 Original Traditional High Power System (IBA) AC-48V DC Silver Box + 48-12V DC-DC Brick + VRM/VRDs to loads As designed: –High efficiency (~65%), small size, cost effective –Powered 1.5-2.5V processors, few concerns over energy costs Over time: –AC-12V DC SMPS & VRM efficiencies / densities improved –IBA bus converters considered expensive and unnecessary As a result, use of a 12V-only bus increased Rect., EMI & Inrush 12VAC 380V DC PFC 1.xV CPU Regulated HV DC-DC AC-DC Silver Box 1.xV Memory VRx DC-DC Brick 48V Backplane Motherboard

4 SC07, 11-14-07 4 Later Traditional High Power System (12V) Rect., EMI & Inrush 12VAC 380V DC PFC 1.xV CPU Regulated HV DC-DC AC-DC Silver Box Motherboard / Blade 1.xV Memory VRx 1.xV CPU Motherboard / Blade VRx 1.xV Memory VRx AC to 12V silver box 12V distribution Synch Buck POLs to load voltages

5 SC07, 11-14-07 5 12V Bus Concerns 12V bus is –Established –Proven –Multi-sourced 12V Bus is also… –Inefficient Distribution / connector losses Low efficiency synch buck POLs (especially for sub-1V loads) due to duty-cycle limitations –Expensive Large connectors, heavy bus bars, lots of copper, high electricity bills –Out of date Only used in new systems due to incumbency and for legacy loads (e.g. 12V disk drives)

6 SC07, 11-14-07 6 Efficiency Improvements Higher voltage bus (380V DC * and / or 48V DC ) Direct 48V-sub 1V conversion Provide 12V for legacy / low power loads * DC Power for Improved Datacenter Efficiency, Ton (Ecos), Fortenbery (EPRI) & Tschudi (Lawrence Berkeley National Labs), January 2007.

7 SC07, 11-14-07 7 Revision #1: 380V to the Blade / Motherboard Rect., EMI & Inrush 12VAC 380V DC PFC 1.xV CPU HV BCM AC-HVDC Silver Box Motherboard / Blade 1.xV Memory 12V 1.xV CPU HV BCM Motherboard / Blade 1.xV Memory Silver Box AC-post-PFC 380V DC –Reduces silver box size by >50% 380V distribution direct to blade –Eliminates distribution loss in system (I 2 R loss at 380V is 0.1% of 12V loss) –Minimize connector size and cost 380-12V conversion on the blade –Minimize 12V distribution distance VRx

8 SC07, 11-14-07 8 HV DC-DC Conversion Bus Converter Module (BCM) –Isolated, Unregulated –Voltage transformer / current multiplier Sine Amplitude Converter Topology –ZVS, ZCS, >1Mhz switching frequency 384:12V =300W@ 95.5% 384:48V =330W@ 96.5% 1.1 in 2 package (>1000W / in 3 ) –1.28 x 0.87 x 0.26in –0.5 oz / 15 g each U.S. and Foreign Patents and Patents Pending

9 SC07, 11-14-07 9 Revision #2: Direct 48V-to-load conversion Rect., EMI & Inrush 48V AC 380V DC PFC AC-HVDC Silver Box Motherboard / Blade 1.xV Memory Same 380V direct to blade 380-48V conversion on the blade 48-1.xV highest efficiency, smallest converter at the load –Minimize 12V on-blade distribution loss PRMVTM 1.xV CPUPRMVTM HV BCM 48V Motherboard / Blade 1.xV MemoryPRMVTM 1.xV CPUPRMVTM HV BCM

10 SC07, 11-14-07 10 Direct 48V-to-Load Conversion Pre-Regulator Module (PRM) Non–isolated, regulator ZVS Buck – Boost Topology –ZVS, >1MHz switching Performance –320W in 1.1in 2 package –Power Density >1,100W/in 3 –Efficiency = >97% at 320W out Input: Unregulated 48V Output: Regulated (26-55V) VTM US and Foreign Patents and Patents Pending PRM + VTM = Isolated, regulated, voltage transformation direct to load Voltage Transformation Module (VTM) Isolated, voltage transformer Sine Amplitude Converter Topology –ZVS, ZCS, >1Mhz switching frequency Performance –Up to 100A in 1.1in 2 –>96% Efficient at 300W out Input: Regulated 26-55V from PRM Outputs: 0.8 - 55V, up to 100A (13 models)

11 SC07, 11-14-07 11 Space-saving Powertrain – and no Bulk Direct 48V-to-load conversion with 2 VI Chips PRM can be located remotely –Increased space on motherboard / near load –Reduced power dissipation at load Move POL Capacitance to input of VTM –Reduce capacitance by 1/k^2 –Additional space and cost savings LoadSourceLoadSourceLoadSource 1,000uF here 1uF here

12 SC07, 11-14-07 12 Transient Response

13 SC07, 11-14-07 13 Powertrain & Distribution Efficiency High conversion efficiency and smallest footprint from 380V-load Convert 380V to 1.5V, 200A –Total 380V-to-load Efficiency = 85.2% 96.5% x 97% x 91% –Total PCB power component footprint = 4.4 in 2 ( 4 chip solution ) With fewer caps, smaller filters, smaller heatsinks Co-locate HV BCM & PRM, place only the VTM at the load = highest distribution efficiency (I 2 R) and least space taken at the load 1.5V 200A 380V48VV F (48V) HV BCMPRM VTM

14 SC07, 11-14-07 14 Legacy, Low Power Loads Rect., EMI & Inrush 48V AC 380V DC PFC AC-HVDC Silver Box Motherboard / Blade 1.xV Memory Step down from 48V to create 12V for legacy / low power loads. Simple unregulated DC-DC converter PRMVTM 1.xV CPUPRMVTM HV BCM Motherboard / Blade xV Low Power Loads VRx BCM 12V

15 SC07, 11-14-07 15 Systems Comparison System –Blade / Motherboard Content: 6 processors (1.0V, 120A ea.) 6 memory (1.5V, 50A ea.) Miscellaneous rails (12V, 150W total) –Infrastructure: 30 blades / Motherboards Board impedance 1.5mΩ Rack distribution impedance 2.0mΩ –Operation: Duty cycle = 65% Air conditioning = 50% efficient Electricity = $0.1028 per kWhr* Systems: –[AC 12V]1.xV(baseline) –[AC-384V] 12V1.xV –[AC-384V]48V1.xV –[AC - 48V]1.xV […] = silver box * Nevada industrial electricity price July 07 ( http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/table5_6_a.html )http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/table5_6_a.html

16 SC07, 11-14-07 16 Efficiency Comparison: AC-Loads In all cases, adoption of higher voltage improves efficiency 380V in rack and 48V on blade / motherboard has highest efficiency –+8.7% pts over baseline Improved efficiency 380V-Load means smaller PFC / EMI section. +8.7% pts

17 SC07, 11-14-07 17 Power Loss (per Blade / Motherboard) Reduction of 173W per blade / motherboard vs. baseline 173 W

18 SC07, 11-14-07 18 Utility Savings ( per Year per Blade / Motherboard ) 380V in rack and 48V on blade / motherboard has highest saving ($202 per year, per blade / motherboard) $202

19 SC07, 11-14-07 19 Conclusion 12V-only distribution systems have limitations in high power computing applications –Lower load voltages and larger load domain power –Duty cycle limitation of synchronous buck conversion –Increased I 2 R distribution loss Higher voltage (380V and / or 48V) distribution greatly reduces distribution loss –Direct 48-to-load conversion offers high efficiency and small size –Enable up to 8.7% pts efficiency improvement over 12V baseline –Significant running cost savings

20 SC07, 11-14-07 20 References Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency (p56), U.S. EPA ENERGY STAR Program, Andrew Fanara, August 2, 2007 The Invisible Crisis in the Data Center: The Economic meltdown of Moores Law. Kenneth Brill, Uptime Institute, 2007 DC Power for Improved Datacenter Efficiency, Ton (Ecos), Fortenbery (EPRI) & Tschudi (Lawrence Berkeley National Labs), January 2007 Datacenter Power Delivery Architectures : Efficiency and Annual Operating Costs, Yeaman (V.I Chip), Digital Power Forum, September 2007

21 SC07, 11-14-07 Thank you Questions & comments? Visit the VI Chip booth (#832) for a live 380V-0.8V demo


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