2Two State MachineWe have seen that all types of data can be represented by binary numbers...and so all components used in a computer system and all data storage devices have only two states.for example a switch is on or off, transistors conduct or don’t conduct and a signal is a pulse of electricity or no pulse.
3Stored Program Concept To execute a program you must first load the program and any relevant data in to the computer’s memory (RAM) from disk.The program and data is stored in memory until needed by the processor – this is the stored program concept.By changing the program and data stored before execution, a computer is termed a general purpose machine.
4Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure The traditional diagram of a computer ...CPUCONTROLUNITALUREGISTERSINPUT DEVICES keyboard + mouse etc.OUTPUT DEVICES monitor + printer etc.RAMROMMAIN MEMORYBACKING STORAGE
5Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure The Structure of the CPU - The Control UnitThe control unit is like the CPU’s manager. The main functions of the control unit are:To send out the signals to fetch instructions from memory.To interpret those instructions.To send out signals to enable instructions to be carried out.This is known as the fetch execute cycle
6Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure The Structure of the CPU - The ALUThe arithmetic and logic unit, the ALU, performs the following functions;Calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.Logic functions, such as comparing values.
7Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure Main MemoryThe main memory part can be visualised as a series of individual boxes with their own unique address.
8Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure The Size & Number of Memory LocationsThe word length of a computer is the size of the data, in bits, which can be manipulated as a single unit by the processor. Logically, it is also the number of bits that a single memory location can store.The size is determined by the width of the data pathways (or buses) within the computer, between the processor and the memory.The system above has a word length of 16 bits.
9Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure Main MemoryRAM has the following features:The CPU can write to, or read from, RAM at high speed. RAM can be changed by the CPU at any time - it is volatile.All information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is switched off.Static RAM holds its contents as long as there is a power supply.Dynamic RAM (DRAM) has to be refreshed by reading and rewriting its contents frequently.DRAM is more common because it needs less power and its circuitry is simpler.
10Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure Main MemoryROM has the following features:Data in ROM is permanently written into a microchip.Data in ROM can be read by the CPU from the moment the computer is switched on.The bootstrap loader is stored in ROM.Data stored in ROM is not lost when the computer is turned off.
11Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure Main MemoryPROM (Programmable Read Only Memory)Empty of data when the chip is manufactured, can be programmed by the user. Once programmed the data cannot be erased.EPROM (Erasable PROM)Like PROM only the chip can be removed from the computer and the program erased and another stored in its place using ultraviolet light.EEPROM (Erasable PROM)Like EPROM but electricity is used to erase and reprogram selected contents.
12Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure Storage Outside Main MemoryReading /writing data to and from memory can slow down the system performance. To combat this problem, the processor can store data in cache memory or its internal registers instead of the RAM.Cache memorysmall amount of memory e.g. 512 KB.stores the next instructions to be read.physically closer to the processor than RAM.uses static memory (SRAM).
13Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure Storage in the CPU - RegistersRegisters are temporary storage locations in the processor.A register can be used for tasks like ;holding data for a calculation.storing the address of the next instruction to be executed.holding the instruction as it is being decoded and executed.We will look at registers in more detail in the Fetch-Execute cycle.
14Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure The Processor and Main MemoryMain MemoryProcessorAddressALUControl UnitOtherregistersMemory Address RegisterMemory Data RegisterAddress bus32 linesData bus16 linesControl bus6 lines
15Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure BusesA bus is an electronic highway or a collection of cables where each cable can transmit one bit.There are three buses:The address bus, which is used by the processor to pinpoint the memory location, needed. This is a one-way bus.The data bus, which is used to transfer the data. Its size will usually match the word size i.e. the size of the memory locations. This is a two-way bus.The control bus, which is used to initiate and control what is happening.
16Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure The Address BusMemory Address RegisterAddress busMain MemoryAddressProcessorinformation is carried from the processor to the main memorythis informs the main memory which memory locationwill be read or used to store data.each wire on the bus carries one bit of information at a time.the number of wires in this bus determines the number of memory locations.8 lines will allow 256 memory locations.32 lines will allow 68,719,476,736 memory locations.increasing the width of this bus, increases the number of memory locations that it is possible to address.
17Address BusAddress BusOne-way.Carries address information from CPU to Main Memory and any other devices attached to the bus.The width of the address bus (i.e. number of wires in it) determines the number of memory locations which the CPU can address.Every time a bit is added to the width of the address bus, the address range doubles. e.g. 2 bits = 4 addresses, 3 bits = 8 addresses etc
18Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure Memory DataRegisterData busMain MemoryAddressThe Data BusProcessorinformation is carried to and from the processor and mainmemory.this stores data in a memory location and reads data from amemory location.each wire on the bus carries one bit of information at a time.the description of the computer i.e 32 bit computer, informs the user of the number of wires in this bus.increasing the width of this bus, increases the quantity of data that can be carried at onetime and so increases the performance of the computer system.
19Data BusTwo wayCarries data to and from the CPU, main memory and any other devices attached to the data bus.The number of wires in the data bus determines the quantity of data that the data bus can carry.More bits in the data bus means more data carried in a single operation (increased computer performance).The size of the data bus determines the word length of a computer.
20Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure ControlUnitControl busMain MemoryAddressThe Control BusProcessoreach wire on the bus has its own separate function and isactivated independently of the others.ReadInforms the memory that data is to be sent to theprocessor from a particular memory location.WriteInforms the memory that data is to be stored in a particular memory location.ClockGenerates a constant pulse which regulates the flow of information.A clock of 600MHz (megahertz) generates a pulse 600,000,000 times a second.
21Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure The Control BusControlUnitControl busMain MemoryAddressProcessorInterruptThis is a signal informs the processor that some important external activity has taken place. The current state of processing is saved, then the processor deals with the interrupting device, it then returns to the previous state when finished with the interrupt request.NMIThe Non-Maskable Interrupt operates like an interrupt but it cannot be ignored. It must be dealt with immediately.ResetClears all internal processor registers and returns the computer to its initial switched on state.
22Control BusTwo wayConsists of separate lines which each do a different control taskall the lines work independently.The Lines consist of:-read linewrite lineclock lineinterrupt linenon-maskable interrupt linereset line
23Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure The Links Between Processor and MemoryThe Stored Program concept:The program and data are stored in RAM until needed by the processor.The FETCH-EXECUTE cycle:The first instruction is fetched from memory into the processor where it is decoded and executed. The same happens to the second instruction and so on until the program ends.The processor has to be able to pinpoint any memory location in which instructions or data are stored. Each memory location is assigned an unique address.
24Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure Read From MemoryA processor needs an instruction from memory or requires some data to perform a calculation. Here are the steps and buses needed to fetch that information from memory.1. Processor sets up address bus with the address to be read in memory in the MARThis pinpoints the desired location2. Processor activates the read line on the control busThis tells the memory a ‘read’ is to occur and the memory finds the requested location3. Data from the memory is copied onto the data bus and transferred into the MDRData is transferred to the processor
25Higher Grade Computing Studies 2. Computer Structure Write To MemoryHere are the steps and buses needed to write information to memory.1. Processor sets up address bus with the address of the location to be written to in the MARThis pinpoints the desired location2. Processor sets up data bus with the data to be written to memory into the MDRThis prepares the data3. Processor activates the write line on the control busThis tells the memory a ‘write’ is to occur and the memory finds the requested location4. Data from the processor is copied onto the data bus and into memoryData is transferred to the memory
26Read From Memory Steps Effect Processor sets up the address bus with the appropriate address.This pinpoints the desired location.Processor activates the read line on the control bus.This tells the location that it is to be read from.Data from the memory location is copied onto the data bus.Data is transferred to the processor.Processor deactivates all lines.
27Write to Memory Steps Effect Processor sets up the address bus with the appropriate address.This pinpoints the desired location.Processor sets up the data bus with the data to be stored.Prepares the data for copying into the memory location.Processor activates the write line on the control bus.This tells the location that it is to be written to.Data is copied from the data bus into the memory location.Data is stored in memory.Processor deactivates all lines.
28Questions on p24 of booklet TaskQuestions on p24 of booklet