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THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT The Roots of the Civil Rights Movement.

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Presentation on theme: "THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT The Roots of the Civil Rights Movement."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT The Roots of the Civil Rights Movement


3 The 13 th, 14 th and 15 th Amendments were supposed to protect the rights of African Americans under the U.S. Constitution… But they did not because of a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court…

4 PLESSY v. FERGUSON (1896) Homer Plessy U.S. Supreme Court case that made segregation legal in the United States Established the principle of separate but equal

5 PLESSY v. FERGUSON (1896) Separate but equal meant that minorities were not allowed in the same places as whites Southern states passed laws that legalized segregation known as Jim Crow laws

6 For the next 70 years, Jim Crow laws dominated society in the South for African Americans Segregation became the way of life for blacks in the South until…

7 BROWN v. BOARD of EDUCATION (1954) African American girl sued for the right to go to the school of her choice – and WON! Ruling overturned the ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson case and outlawed segregation in public schools

8 BROWN v. BOARD of EDUCATION Supreme Court ruled segregation of public schools was unconstitutional Ruling gave improved educational opportunities to African Americans

9 BROWN v. BOARD of EDUCATION NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall (center) argued the case to end segregation Marshall later became the first African American on the U.S. Supreme Court

10 Rosa Parks refuses to move to the back of the bus The Movement Begins Parks is arrested, leading to the…

11 Montgomery Bus Boycott Outraged over Parks arrest, African Americans organize a boycott of Montgomerys Public Transportation System in 1956 African Americans carpooled, took taxis, or walked to avoid taking the bus After a year, the city of Montgomery was ordered to end its segregation policy African Americans carpooling during the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1956

12 Montgomery Bus Boycott

13 A leader emerges The person who led the Montgomery Bus Boycott was a Baptist minister from Atlanta. His name was Martin Luther King, Jr. The boycott of the busing system of Montgomery gained King national prominence MLK leaving a bus after the boycott ends

14 Martin Luther King, Jr. Born in Atlanta, GA Born in Atlanta, GA Southern Baptist Minister Southern Baptist Minister Led Montgomery Bus Boycott Led Montgomery Bus Boycott Leader of the Civil Rights Leader of the Civil Rights Movement Movement Often compared to Mohandas Gandhi Often compared to Mohandas Gandhi Advocated non-violent protests Advocated non-violent protests Urged followers to disobey unjust laws Urged followers to disobey unjust laws Was arrested 30 times Was arrested 30 times

15 ... there comes a time when people get tired of being trampled over by the iron feet of oppression. … I want it to be known that were going to work with grim and bold determination to gain justice on the buses in this city. And we are not wrong... -- MLK King following his first arrest Martin Luther King: A powerful speaker

16 Types of Protests Marches Marches Sit-ins Sit-ins Freedom Riders Freedom Riders

17 Civil Rights Marches Marches were the most common form of protests used during the Civil Rights Movement Protestors would march peacefully in attempt to draw national attention for their cause

18 Sit-insBlacks were denied service at lunch counters They sat at the counter until they were served or arrested Sit-ins raised the awareness of the discrimination that was occurring Students who participated in the sit-ins refused to become violent

19 Freedom Riders Blacks and whites traveled into the South to draw attention to the Souths segregation of bus terminals When Freedom Riders arrived at various cities in the South, white mobs attacked them


21 Coming up next: Movement gains national attention… Movement gains national attention… …and also becomes violent

22 THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Key events of the Civil Rights Movement

23 Leaders of Civil Rights Movement Martin Luther King, Jr. Medgar Evers Malcolm X Stokley Carmichael Rosa Parks

24 WE SHALL OVERCOME We Shall Overcome became the battle cry of the Civil Rights Movement Protestors often sang the song during civil rights marches

25 Civil Rights Organizations NAACP SCLC SNCC CORE National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Southern Christian Leadership Council Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee Congress of Racial Equality

26 The movement gains national attention CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Clockwise, from right, integration of Little Rock Central; bombing of 16 th Street Baptist Church ; lynching of Emmitt Till; violence in Birmingham; murder of civil rights workers in Mississippi

27 Odyssey of Emmitt Till Emmitt Till Open casket at Emmitt Till funeral Emmitt Till was a 14-year-old from Chicago whose murder in 1955 made national news whose murder in 1955 made national news Till was lynched and murdered after he said bye baby to a white woman who was the cashier at a store while visiting his cashier at a store while visiting his cousin in Money, Mississippi

28 Ending school segregation In 1957, a federal court ordered the integration of Little Rock Central High Arkansas Governor Orville Faubus sent in the National Guard to keep the peace The local NAACP picked out nine African Americans to attend the school On their first attempt to enter the school, the black students were denied entrance

29 Ending school segregation The Little Rock Nine U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower called in federal troops to enforce the Supreme Court ruling Only one of the Little Rock Nine graduated that year, but the incident raised national awareness about the discrimination in the South

30 James Meredith enters Ole Miss Ending school segregation James Meredith is denied admission into Ole Miss President Kennedy sends 500 federal marshals to escort Meredith and make sure he was allowed to attended classes

31 Wallace fights segregation Ending school segregation "The President wants us to surrender this state to Martin Luther King and his group of pro-Communists who have instituted these demonstrations." Alabama governor George Wallace blocks the entrance to keep two black students from enrolling at the University of Alabama President Kennedy sends federal marshals to enforce the federal law George Wallace

32 Violence in Birmingham At marches in Alabama, Birmingham police chief Bull Connor used fire hoses and attack dogs to prevent people from marching The incident raised national awareness about the discrimination in the South

33 Violence in Birmingham Birmingham, Alabama, was regarded as the most segregated city in the South Because of all the bombings in the city, Birmingham was nicknamed Bombingham The bombing of the 16 th Street Baptist Church killed four innocent girls

34 Mississippi Burning murders Michael Schwerner James Chaney Andrew Goodman In the summer of 1964, dubbed - Freedom Summer - three civil rights workers came up missing in, Mississippi Weeks later, they were found dead after having been killed by members of the Ku Klux Klan

35 March on Washington To support to President Kennedys Civil Rights bill, Martin Luther King, Jr., organized a massive march on Washington, D.C., as a show of support for the bill On August 28, 1963, more than 200,000 demonstrators gathered peacefully at the nations capital

36 MLK: I have a dream It was during the March on Washington in 1963 that Martin Luther King, Jr., gave his I Have a Dream speech Dr. King presented his dream of freedom and equality for all Americans The March on Washington and Martin Luther Kings speech helped to lead to the…

37 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Despite strong opposition from Southern senators, President Lyndon B. Johnson got Congress to pass the bill Law gave Congress power to outlaw segregation in most public places; gave minorities equal access to facilities such as restaurants and theaters

38 24 th Amendment The 24 th Amendment, ratified in 1964, helped to guarantee the right to vote for African Americans It abolished poll taxes, which were fees that had to be paid in order to vote in national elections SNCC and SCLC increased their voter registration drives in the South

39 Selma March/Bloody Sunday

40 Voting Rights Act of 1965 "By the way, what's the big word?" The violence in Selma infuriated President Johnson and led to the federal government to step in again Johnson to propose a new voting rights law and, in early August, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was signed into law It authorized the Attorney General to send federal examiners to register qualified voters by bypassing local officials who tried to keep blacks from voting

41 THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Key events of the Civil Rights Movement

42 Movement takes a different direction

43 Malcolm X Malcolm X was the Civil Rights Movement leader who advocated the use of violence to gain African American rights He was assassinated in 1965 after abandoning the beliefs of Black Panthers

44 The Black Panthers The Black Panthers were the group during the Civil Rights Movement that urged African Americans to fight for their rights The Black Panthers were led by former SNCC leader Stokley Carmichael

45 Martin Luther King assassinated Tragedy struck on April 4, 1968, when Martin Luther King was assassinated King was in Memphis, Tenn., for a march for Sanitation Workers The assassination of Martin Luther King marked the end of the civil rights movement

46 Coming up next: Other groups fight for their rights Other groups fight for their rights Latinos, Native Americans, women

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