There is a difference between a number of people and a group. A number of people here in this example are located close together but they are not a group. What do you think: what is a group?
WHAT IS A GROUP? Sometimes, people say that the group is a two or more persons with a common goal. Lets go back to the but stop and see if they have goals and whether the goal is a common one ! Having one common goal or objective does not make them a group. Bus, only bus, please be on time Bus, when will you come? I want to get on the bus Hey Saeid, you want me to set my goal as wanting a bus to come; if you want, Okay, this is my goal. When I need you, just close my eyes, and Im with bus
READ THESE WORDS FROM FORSYTH (2006) But what is a collection of human beings called? A group. …. [C]ollections of people may seem unique, but each possesses that one critical element that defines a group: connections linking the individual members…. [M]embers are linked together in a web of interpersonal relationships. Thus, a group is defined as two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationships. Hundreds of fish swimming together are called a school. A pack of foraging baboons is a troupe. A half dozen crows on a telephone line is a murder. A gam is a group of whales.
INTERCONNECTEDNESS ! Lets talk more about this definition: a group is defined as two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationships. What do you think?
EXAMPLES OF SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS: A man and a woman fall in love and they are going to marry (a social relationship). People may have a shared cause (for instance: lets protect the environment). People are challenged by a question and they have to face the challenge (they may become socially related). Three persons who are studying in a school, are friends. They go to cinema together. They are socially connected. They have a friendship circle.
OTHER EXAMPLES OF GROUPS Find elements of social relationship in the following groups: A football team An internet listserv (where people exchange views on one specific issue) or a friendship group in facebook A college psychology class with 14 participants A cult A community-based group working to create a better environment for the citizens with their participation A business team working on the vision and mission of a company
INTERACTION IS NECESSARY ! For such social interconnectedness, interaction is a must. Conformity Coordination Cohesiveness A group is said to be in a state of cohesion when its members possess bonds linking them to one another and to the group as a whole. Each and every member feel a sense of group identity. Solidarity Conformity means that a member / members match their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. Coordination is the act of organizing the roles, making different members work together for a goal or effect to fulfill desired goals in the group. Solidarity is unity that produces ties that bind members together. Dynamics The flow of coherent activities - as envisaged - leads the group towards the realization of its goals.
ATTENTION! A group may have norms, roles (assigned to group members), communication structure (who talks to whom), and a power structure (how much the members have authority and influence) but the group cannot remain a group without having the interconnectedness – which means to have interaction. A group dies if the interaction fades. talkinglisteningseeing on-going feedback Interaction
Primary groupsSecondary groups Planned groups Founded/concocted Emergent groups Open groupClosed group Membership groups Support groupsPeer groups Formal groupsInformal groups Charity groupsFriendship groups Community-based groups Fan groups Teams Project groups Self-help groups A FACILITATOR WORKS WITH/IN GROUPS… It is practical for a facilitator to know about the following types of groups – why they are beneficial and useful? Who are their members? What they do ? and what could be the role of a facilitator in each group?
HOWEVER, THESE THREE FORMS ARE IMPORTANT FOR A FACILITATOR: Small groups Workshop groupPublic Decision-making is easier It can be diverse/ or homogenous More diversity Good for resource-raising Able to carry out a specific task Effective for synchronic training Conflict resolution can be easier More sustainable Participants become sensitive Brain-storming brings more ideas Participation increases Suitable for exchanging experiences Voices are heard Deep interaction Knowledge sharing Participatory evaluation Needs assessment and priority-setting Learning by doing Planning and goal-setting
RESOURCES FORSYTH, D. R. (2006). GROUP DYNAMICS (INTERNATIONAL STUDENT EDITION).THOMSON/WADSWORTH: BELMONT, CA. LEWIN, K. (1945). "THE RESEARCH CENTER FOR GROUP DYNAMICS AT MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY". SOCIOMETRY 8 (2): 126–136.