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Computer Systems Nat 4/5 Computing Science Computer Structure: Lesson 1: Processor Structure.

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Presentation on theme: "Computer Systems Nat 4/5 Computing Science Computer Structure: Lesson 1: Processor Structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Computer Systems Nat 4/5 Computing Science Computer Structure: Lesson 1: Processor Structure

2 Lesson Aims By the end of this lesson: Pupils at will be able to: Label a computer system in terms of a 5 block diagram Describe the phrase word length Describe the purpose of a processor List and describe the parts of a processor: Control Unit, ALU, registers Describe what a bus is and does

3 A Basic Computer System Nat 4/5 This is known as the 5 block diagram. Processor Input Devices OutputDevices Memory Backing Storage

4 The 5 Block Diagram Input Devices These are devices that enter data INTO the computer. i.e. Keyboard and mouse Output Devices These are devices that generate output FROM the computer i.e. printer. Memory There are two types of memory. RAM and ROM (more on this later) Backing Storage This is required to store permanent copies of our files. Nat 4/5

5 The Processor The processor is the brain of the computer. It is the piece of equipment that actually performs the instructions required. It can be shown in the following diagram: Nat 4/5 Processor Control Unit Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Registers

6 Registers These are temporary stores of information, at best they will store a few bytes of information. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) This performs the calculations for the processor. It also carries out the Logical decisions. Control Unit This controls the order of execution and the timing of instructions Processor Parts Nat 4/5

7 32 bit and 64 bit computing? You often hear a processor being described as 32 bit or 64 bit. This is usually referring to the word length of the computer This is the largest binary number that the processor can manipulate in one operation. Nat 4/5

8 What does a bus do? A bus is a collection of wires which can carry data Nat 4/5 Processor Control Unit ALUALU Registers Main Memory RAMRAM ROMROM Data Bus Address Bus

9 Buses Data Bus Data Bus The data bus is used to carry data to and from the CPU and Memory. It will hold a binary word. Address Bus Address Bus This carries the address of the memory location that is being used Nat 4/5

10 Summary The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the heart of the computer The CPU has 3 main parts Control Unit Controls the timing and order of execution Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Performs the arithmetical and logical functions Registers Temporary stores of information Word length is the length of the biggest binary number that the processor can process in one operation Nat 4/5


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