Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

V 2012.13. 2 Avon High School Tech Crew Agenda Old Business New Business Week 2 Meeting Review Week 3 Topics: –Intro to Memory –Continue to trouble shoot.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "V 2012.13. 2 Avon High School Tech Crew Agenda Old Business New Business Week 2 Meeting Review Week 3 Topics: –Intro to Memory –Continue to trouble shoot."— Presentation transcript:

1 V 2012.13

2 2 Avon High School Tech Crew Agenda Old Business New Business Week 2 Meeting Review Week 3 Topics: –Intro to Memory –Continue to trouble shoot our PC

3 3 Avon High School Tech Crew Old Business Sub-groups –Graphics –Web Design –App Development –Other? Scorers table job Email me with interest! Fundraising Remember … participate! –Read email, polls, requests, etc.

4 4 Avon High School Tech Crew New Business District Tech Department Help –Install Office 2010 –Repair Computers Contact Info –Request your name/year Comments on Twitter T-Shirts –Limited sizes/colors

5 5 Avon High School Tech Crew Week 2 Meeting Review Intro to Computer Repair –What did you think? –Any follow-up questions? Our non-working PC … –Did you answer the poll question?

6 6 Avon High School Tech Crew Intro to Memory

7 7 Avon High School Tech Crew Intro to Memory Common Terms Common Types How it works Resources

8 8 Avon High School Tech Crew First, Some Common Terms TermDefinitionPurpose VolatileComputer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information RAM Non-VolatileComputer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered ROM DIMMDual in-line memory moduleDifference between SIMMs and DIMMs is that DIMMs have separate electrical contacts on each side of the module

9 9 Avon High School Tech Crew Common Types of Memory TypeDefinitionPurpose BIOSBasic Input/Output SystemBoots firmware, POST ROMRead-only memoryUsed to store firmware CacheSmaller, faster memoryReduce average time to access main memory (L1, L2, L3) RAMRandom-access memoryData accessed quickly in random order, in same amount of time DRAMDynamic random-access memoryData fades unless the capacitor charge is refreshed, very high densities SRAMStatic random-access memoryHolds charge, typically faster, less dense, more expensive SDRAM/DDRSynchronous dynamic random- access memory Synchronized with the computer's system bus (DDR1, DDR2, DDR3)

10 10 Avon High School Tech Crew DDR (SDRAM) Memory Double Data Rate Two data transfers per cycle Higher bandwidth –DDR3 has the ability to transfer data at twice the rate of DDR2 Uses less power (30%)

11 11 Avon High School Tech Crew Common Types of Memory TypeDefinitionPurpose FlashNon-volatile computer storage chip that can be erased and reprogrammed Used in USB drives, memory cards, solid-state drives SGRAM/GDDRSynchronous graphics random- access memory, Graphics Double Data Rate Specialized form of SDRAM for graphics adaptors (GDDR3, GDDR4, GDDR5) Solid State/SSDSolid-state drive, no moving mechanical components, retains data without power Data storage device

12 12 Avon High School Tech Crew DDR vs GDDR GDDR is built for much higher bandwidth, thanks to a wider memory bus GDDR has lower power and heat dispersal requirements compared to DDR, allowing for higher performance modules, with simpler cooling systems DDR1, DDR2, and DDR3 have a 64 bit bus (or 128 bit in dual channel). GDDR3, comparatively, commonly uses between a 256 bit bus and 512 bit bus, or interface (across 4-8 channels)

13 13 Avon High School Tech Crew DRAM vs SSDs DRAM is used to run stuff SSDs are where you store stuff

14 14 Avon High School Tech Crew Memory Hierarchy

15 15 Avon High School Tech Crew Memory Hierarchy

16 16 Avon High School Tech Crew Why so many types of memory? Different pieces of a computer system have different requirements for speed, size and cost Computer designers have solved the cost problem by "tiering" memory Using expensive memory in small quantities and then backing it up with larger quantities of less expensive memory

17 17 Avon High School Tech Crew So, how does memory work? The basics … Each memory cell is comprised of: –Transistor –Capacitor Each cell can hold 1 bit of information Cell contains a data input line, a data output line, a Read/Write line and a select line –The select line activates the cell and Read/Write line tells it either to output its contents or store what is at its input

18 18 Avon High School Tech Crew So, how does memory work? Cells are organized in a grid pattern, rows columns Data (line) inputs and outputs for each cell are connected together to form an array Data is written to a specific row and column of the array, defined as the binary address CPU can access the data from that specific address

19 19 Avon High School Tech Crew So, how does memory work? Data lines from multiple memory chips are grouped to form a data bus Data bus has the following characteristics: –Bus width refers to the number of bits that can be sent to the CPU simultaneously –Bus speed refers to the number of times a group of bits can be sent each second –Bus cycle occurs every time data travels from memory to the CPU

20 20 Avon High School Tech Crew So, how does memory work? Memory Controller –Manages the flow of data going to and from the main memory –Contain logic necessary to read and write to DRAM, and to "refresh" the DRAM –It can be a separate chip or integrated into another chip (like the CPU) –Part of the Northbridge Located closest to the CPU (or on the CPU) and controls the fastest components on the motherboard: the CPU, video card slot and RAM

21 21 Avon High School Tech Crew When/Why would you install memory? To improve performance –O/S, apps getting larger To prevent disk swapping –Windows creates virtual RAM –In the form of pagefile.sys on your hard drive But there are other factors that impact performance …

22 22 Avon High School Tech Crew Summary Different types of memory address different needs Used in almost every phase of a computer system At a high level, memory is comprised of cells, arrays, data bus Operated by a memory controller which communicates with the CPU Generally helps improve performance

23 23 Avon High School Tech Crew Questions/Comments? Scott Seighman scotts@ahstechcrew.org

24 24 Avon High School Tech Crew Troubleshooting

25 25 Avon High School Tech Crew Our Non-Working PC … Dell 2400 No output to screen Blinking amber light (power) Fans are not spinning What would you do next? Ideas …?


Download ppt "V 2012.13. 2 Avon High School Tech Crew Agenda Old Business New Business Week 2 Meeting Review Week 3 Topics: –Intro to Memory –Continue to trouble shoot."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google