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Computer Architecture and Microprocessors By Navdeep Goyal.

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1 Computer Architecture and Microprocessors By Navdeep Goyal

2 Purpose of Talk What are the advantages of teaching these topics to physics students To discuss the curriculum for teaching microprocessors to physics students Introduction to SAP microprocessor

3 Importance. Learning about the design considerations of microprocessors is important. Students opting for further studies in microelectronics are benefitted. Knowledge of working of a processors is important. Starting with working of simplest computer system is always helpful. Better to start with few basic principles of working of computer systems

4 Proposed Sequence Which device was designed first Computer or microprocessor? Bus organised computer systems – Data Bus – Address Bus – Control Bus – Tri-state Devices – Buffer Registers – SAP-1, SAP-2 etc – 8085 microprocessor – 8086 and other advanced microprocessors

5 BUS SYSTEM In all computer system, the data is transferred from one place to other through common DATA BUS The selection of device is from the address, which is sent through common address bus Depending upon control signals data is written onto or read from a particular register

6 TRI STATE DEVICES TRI-STATE Devices play important role when we are dealing with bus organized computer systems Three terminal device: – Input, output, control – Available in high active or low active mode – Used at the output of registers, which are connected with common data bus

7 Buffer Registers The loading of data and reading data from buffer register is with the help of control signals For loading data onto register a Load (L) signal is used For receiving data from buffer register an Enable (E) signal is used For different registers loading or enabling may be high or low active

8 Introduction to Sap-1 SAP-1 stands for simple as possible computer SAP-1 is a computer made from discrete ICs Its an 8 bit computer with 4 address lines Can handle max. of 16 address locations Instruction set includes instructions LDA, ADD, SUB, OUT, HLT

9 OPCODES LDA0000 ADD0001 SUB0010 OUT1100 HLT1111

10 OPCODES AND OPERAND Complete code includes opcode and operand Like LDA 04H One instruction is executed in one instruction cycle

11 Machine Cycle/Instruction Cycle Instruction cycle may consist of many machine cycles For SAP-1, Instruction cycle= machine cycle Instruction cycle=Fetch cycle+Execution Cycle Fetch cycle is generally same for all instructions

12 Ring Counter

13 SAP-1

14 How to fabricate various units Program Counter: 4 bit counter-made from J-K flip-flops-74 LS107 with 74LS126 Input/MAR: includes address/data switch registers includes buffer register and 2-1 multiplexer 16X8 RAM Instruction Register: 8 bit buffer register, 2 nos 74 LS173 Controller Sequencer: to generate control signals Accumulator: Buffer register to store intermediate results Adder Subtracter: Arithmatic unit B: buffer register

15 Control Signals Fetch T T T

16 Control Words for various instructions

17 Control Unit of SAP-1

18 Microprogrammed Control Unit Easier to fabricate Slower-not useful for commercial microprocessors Can be used for testing various instructions

19 Variable Machine Cycle Fixed machine cycle may give many unwanted time states Execution is going to take longer time Better to opt for variable machine cycle

20 8085 Pin Diagram

21 Architecture of 8085




25 Thanks

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