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Presentation on theme: "PARTIAL RECONFIGURATION USING FPGAs: ARCHITECTURE"— Presentation transcript:


2 Agenda Introduction Partial Reconfiguration Basics
Design Considerations Advantages of Partial Reconfiguration Challenges of Partial Reconfiguration Application Examples Case Study

3 Introduction FPGA Chip
Basic Premise : Hardware reconfiguration is allowed during execution of an application. Some Interesting Applications Dynamic Instruction Set Architecture Software Defined Radio Video encoding techniques Cryptography Networking protocols FPGA Chip Design A Design B Design C

4 Introduction Classification of FPGA with respect to configuration capabilities Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration : Reconfiguring only a part of the device at run time while the rest of the device executes. Useful for systems which can time share the FPGA resources.

5 Introduction Benefits Area reduction Power reduction Hardware Reuse
Flexibility Performance Improvement Higher Level of Parallelism Time sliced resource sharing Fast system start Load a basic module to enable a fast system boot up Load peripheral modules later. Smaller bitstreams sizes Application Portability Encapsulation of reconfigurable system into a portable application.

6 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
Each vendor’s products can have different characteristics and utilities Some common terminology are as below. TERMINOLOGY Reconfigurable Partition(RP) Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration (DPR) Reconfigurable Module (PRM) Configuration Memory (CM) Frames Partial Bitstream Merged Bitstream Static Logic (Base Region) Bus Macro

7 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
Structure Overview Overall Structure CLBs – Configurable logic blocks IOBs – Input-output buffers DSP48s – Xilinx’s digital signal processing units BRAMs – Block Random Access Memories FIFOs – First-in First-out buffers DCMs – Digital Clock Managers CLBs IOBs DSP48s BRAMS and FIFOs DCMs and Clock Dist. Figure 1. Virtex-4 LX15 FPGA layout

8 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
Structure Overview

9 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
Bit Stream and Frames FPGAs are reprogrammed by writing bits into CM Organized in small blocks called ‘Frames’ Multiple frames required to program a column of tiles(After Virtex II ) Contains both routing and logic tile configuration. Virtex-6 Frame size: 81 x 32 bits (81 words) Typical Bit streams for Virtex-6 are in the range of 43Mb to 190 Mb

10 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
Bit Stream Different columns of FPGA fabric can have different bit streams PR overhead for full flexibility Possible to reduce Bit stream Size : - Compression Techniques - Partial Reconfiguration

11 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
Frames Row address – 0 to 9 Top/Bottom row – with respect to HCLK Together with row address can locate the tile Major Address : Columns 0 onwards Minor Address : No. of frames in tile Block type : Logic Blocks, BRAMs, Routing Blocks.

12 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
Bus Macros Bus Macros: Means of communication between PRMs and static design All connections between PRMs and static design must pass through a bus macro with the exception of a clock signal Type of Bus Macros Tri-state buffer (TBUF) based bus macros Slice-based (or LUT-based) bus macros

13 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
Xilinx Bus Macros (Tri state Buffer Based) Used for connecting points to link Static and reconfigurable part Introduced in 2002 Fixed positions on the FPGA fabric Present along a thin vertical slice Extra hardware required. No longer supported in modern FPGAs.

14 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
Xilinx Bus Macros (LUT Based) LUTs and Switch matrix acts as the connection points (2004) Passes the boundary of static and reconfigurable regions in a predefined manner. Uses 2 LUTs per wire Increased latency and area Not used any more. Partition Pins replace Bus Macros

15 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
Partition Pins Partition Pins are the logical and physical connection between static logic and reconfigurable logic. Automatically created for all RP ports. Also referred to as Proxy LUTs. It is single LUT1 No special instantiations required Not Bidirectional

16 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
Methods of Reconfiguration Externally Serial configuration port JTAG (Boundary Scan) port Select Map port Internally Though the Internal configuration access port (ICAP) using an embedded microcontroller or state machine Summary of Configuration Options

17 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
Reconfiguration via a processor

18 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
ICAP Interface Port to read and write the FPGA configuration at run time Enables a user to write software programs for an embedded processor that modifies the circuit structure and functionality during the circuit’s operation. Allows for automated runtime reconfiguration

19 Partial Reconfiguration Basics
ICAP Interface Storage Device Bus System DMA to Storage Device Read back Support Configuration manager

20 Design Considerations
Partitioning Style Partitioning style could be island style Slot Based Grid Based

21 Design Considerations
Placement Flexibility Partitioning style affects placement and flexibility A partition defines the smallest atomic area a module can be assigned Island style – suffers from fragmentation Slot style - also suffers from fragmentation but to a lesser extent. Offered by the current vendors Xilinx and Altera. Grid Style – Reduced fragmentation. Difficult to support. To enhance flexibility, the PR module must be placed and routed in every region it needs to be configured. Additional stress on Bit stream size.

22 Design Considerations
Resource Column wise layout of different logic primitives Must be considered when placing Depending on the type of logic primitives used by the module(SLICEX, SLICEM, etc), relocation may or may not be possible.

23 Design Considerations
Power One of the potential advantages of PR – Power reduction But PR itself requires power. Power during PR is spent in: 1. Configuration Data Access – - Spent on the configuration controller - Off/On chip Memory access - Programming interface(ICAP, SelectMAP,etc) 2. Actual configuration of FPGA Resources Bonamy, R., et al. "Power Consumption Models for the Use of Dynamic and Partial Reconfiguration." Microprocessors and Microsystems (2014).

24 Design Considerations
Power Tasks switching power graph T1 T2 and T2T1 Bonamy, R., et al. "Power Consumption Models for the Use of Dynamic and Partial Reconfiguration." Microprocessors and Microsystems (2014).

25 Design Considerations
Design Flows Module-based PR: Implement any single component separately. Constrain components to be placed at a given location. Complete bitstream is finally built as the sum of all partial bit streams. Difference-based PR: Implement the complete bitstreams separately. Implement fix parts + reconfigurable parts with components constrained at the same location in all the bitstreams. Compute the difference of two bitstreams to obtain the partial bitstream needed to move from one configuration to the next one.

26 Design Considerations
Module Based P-R

27 Design Considerations
Difference Based P-R Useful for making small on-the-fly changes to design parameters such as logic equations, Filter Parameters. Procedure: Designer makes small logic changes using FPGA_Editor: changing I/Os, block RAM contents LUT programming muxs flip-flop initialization and reset values pull-ups or pull-downs on external pins block RAM write modes Changing any property or value that would impact routing is not recommended due to the risk of internal contention Uses BitGen to generate a bitstream that programs only the difference between the two versions. Very quick switching

28 Design Considerations
Difference Based P-R LUT equations change

29 Design Considerations
Difference Based P-R Changing BRAM contents

30 Challenges of Partial Reconfiguration
Complicated design flow Manual assistance for reconfiguring different target devices. Security issues Decrease performance as compared to full configuration. Xilinx reports 10% degradation in clock frequency when using PR. Xilinx PR Implementation Flow HDL Design Description HDL Synthesis Set Design Constraints Placement Analysis Implement Static Design and PR Modules Merge Final Bitsreams Manual steps

31 Complete Architecture Overview

32 Application examples of Partial Reconfiguration
Evolution Architectures Artifical Neural Networks Evolvable Hardware Platforms Fuzzy systems Modular Robotics Speed Up Crypto (Asym) Area Saving Networking (exchange packet filters according to traffic) Modulation/frequency/encryption hopping in military radios Digital Signal Processing JPEG Encoder/Decoder systems Edge detection applications

33 Case Study Fault Tolerance – Self Healing Architecture
Fault tolerant Processor IF ,MAC and ALU are the PRMs Different configurations available for each module. Focus on the self healing feature more than the performance itself.

34 Case Study Reconfigurable Crypto processor Processor can choose from
Different crypto algorithms Major Area savings Some Power Savings too.

35 Case Study Fast Start Up Fast Start up is a 2 step configuration
Useful in time critical systems to initiate a swift system start up. Example : Automotive safety

36 Thank you Questions ?


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