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Common Avionics- Page 17/25/2012 Common Avionics Approach SpaceAGE Bus & cFE/CFS: Software & Hardware Component Based Architecture Presenters: Jonathan.

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Presentation on theme: "Common Avionics- Page 17/25/2012 Common Avionics Approach SpaceAGE Bus & cFE/CFS: Software & Hardware Component Based Architecture Presenters: Jonathan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Common Avionics- Page 17/25/2012 Common Avionics Approach SpaceAGE Bus & cFE/CFS: Software & Hardware Component Based Architecture Presenters: Jonathan Wilmot & Glenn Rakow NASA-GSFC

2 Common Avionics- Page 27/25/2012 Background: Avionics Current Practice Each organization that builds space systems has their own approach to implementation, so within organizations there are de facto standards –Necessary to save money –Or make profit However among space builders there is little interoperability –Mechanical approach differences –Electrical interfaces differences –Software architecture differences Even though the implementation methods used are very similar –Procured Single Board Computer – BAE Rad750, Leon 3 –Bus protocols – Mil-Std-1553, SpaceWire –Mechanical approach – Backplane in mechanical chassis –etc.

3 Common Avionics- Page 37/25/2012 Basic Tenets – Common Avionics Standards Hardware Software Common Avionics Standards – Interfaces, protocols, electronic data sheets, examples: –CCSDS AOS, Internet Protocol (IP), xTEDS Software architectures, examples: –Frameworks, design patterns, Application Programmer Interfaces (API), Hardware – Interfaces, form factors, protocols, examples: –SpaceWire, Mil 1553b, RMAP, USB PnP, 6U Each of these can stand alone and be applied to a wide variety of missions –Missions may use 1553, or CCSDS AOS but can not interoperate –Current approach for many organizations Common Avionics are defined by the intersection –Each organization can define its own intersection, common only to that organization Example: AFRL Space Plug-and-play Avionics (SPA)

4 Common Avionics- Page 47/25/2012 Common Avionics Goal Reduce Non Recurring Engineering cost of space avionics through reuse Be applicable to majority of space missions both robotics and crew rated vehicles Compatibility of avionics between vendors –Necessary for Human Exploration Programs Develop different vehicles/systems from same components Increase pool of compatible products –Focus limited resources to create synergy in space industry Technology independent – focus on interfaces not implementations –Protocols not defined Few possibilities - allows space community to converge based upon demand Provides system engineer flexibility Stream-line integration of avionics components (hardware & software) similar to commercial plug-n-play

5 Common Avionics- Page 57/25/2012 Common Avionics Business Model Encourage exchange of designs in open market that may be integrated to implement system –Designs may have different levels of compatibility but market forces should force convergence to small group of options Government agencies use tech transfer offices to make designs available to industry that can then be purchased on open market –Current example: GSFC developed the SpaceWire Test Set (SWTS) hardware and software. Via Tech Transfer office, SWTS designs provided to support contractor, who markets and sells the SWTS product. Effort involves procuring the Printed Wiring Board (PWB), outsource the PWB assembly, and test with software. To date 150 SWTS have been built for multiple agencies and projects Currently, GSFC cFE/CFS and SpaceWire IP core (both software products) are widely distributed and used on non-GSFC missions –Help is needed in developing a governance model for maintaining/updating code

6 Common Avionics- Page 67/25/2012 Avionics cost savings Development cost => Build-to-Print Hardware cost approaches a reduction of 80-90% Based upon LCRD HSE budget Reduction of quality assurance and system engineering due to COTS component Reduction of risks Reduction of documentation Reduction of schedule and manpower Time is money => delay requires funding to carry manpower longer Less development Potential New Budget Model Cost Reuse Build-to-Print

7 Common Avionics- Page 77/25/2012 Building Block Elements Definition: Building block element is a software or hardware functional standalone unit of implementation with completely defined interfaces, so that they can be integrated together to form increasingly complex systems. Examples: Hardware –Printed Wiring Boards (PWBs) built to a standard mechanical form factor with defined electrical interfaces –Modules – comprised of a single or multiple PWBs integrated together into a mechanical card frame to form a increasingly complex function Software –Software component that has interface to a defined software bus so that a publish/subscribe messaging service –Hypervisor – supports low level time-space partitioning to protect the operating system from crashing

8 Common Avionics- Page 87/25/2012 NASA/GSFCs Flight Software Architecture: Core Flight Executive and Core Flight System Jonathan Wilmot Software Engineering Division NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

9 Common Avionics- Page 97/25/2012 cFE/CFS Introduction core Flight Executive (cFE) CFS App CFS App CFS App CFS App CFS App CFS Library CFS App CFS Library Core Flight System (CFS) –A Flight Software Architecture consisting of the cFE Core, CFS Libraries, and CFS Applications core Flight Executive (cFE) –A framework of mission independent, re-usable, core flight software services and operating environment For cFE/CFS, each element is a separate loadable file Core Flight System (CFS)

10 Common Avionics- Page 107/25/2012 CFS Flight Software Layers Real Time OS OS Abstraction Layer cFE Platform Support Package cFE Core CFS Library Mission Library Mission Library CFS App 1 CFS App 2 Mission App 1 Mission App 1 Mission App 2 CFS App N Mission App N PROM Boot FSW Mission and CFS Application Layer Mission and CFS Library Layer CFE Core Layer Abstraction Library Layer Mission Developed GSFC Developed 3 rd Party RTOS / BOOT Layer Real Time OS Board Support Package Board Support Package RTEMS, VxWorks, Linux

11 Common Avionics- Page 117/25/2012 cFE Core - Overview A set of mission independent, re-usable, core flight software services and operating environment –Provides standardized Application Programmer Interfaces (API) –Supports and hosts flight software applications –Applications can be added and removed at run-time (eases system integration and FSW maintenance) –Supports software development for on-board FSW, desktop FSW development and simulators –Supports a variety of hardware platforms –Contains platform and mission configuration parameters that are used to tailor the cFE for a specific platform and mission. Executive Services (ES) Software Bus (SB) Time Services (TIME) Event Services (EVS) Table Services (TBL)

12 Common Avionics- Page 127/25/2012 Hardware I/Fs Exemplar GSFC Flight Software Architecture Inter-task Message Router (SW Bus) Event Services EDAC Memory Scrubber Stored Commanding CFDP File Transfer Software Scheduler Housekeeping Manager Executive Services Time Services File Manager Commands cFE Components C&DH Components Real-time Telemetry Communication Interfaces GN&C Components Local Storage 1553 Bus Support File downlink (CFDP) via SpaceWire Software Bus Instrument Managers Command Ingest Telemetry Output 1553 Hardware Memory Manager Data Storage Mass Storage File System Table Services Attitude Determination & Control Limit Checker Space Wire Sensor/actuator I/O handlers Orbit Models Solar Array High-Gain Antenna Instruments Note - Some connection omitted for simplicity Sensors & Actuators Hardware I/Fs Device adapters

13 Common Avionics- Page 137/25/2012 Facets of Common Avionics Software –NASA cFE/CFS example of a component software architecture Hardware –SpaceAGE bus (intra-box interface definition) Modular Standalone Scalable Interface Control Document definition Maintain reasonable flexibility with these area Examples: –Software – allow different operation systems –Hardware – allow different protocols –Electronic Data Sheet (EDS) – work with different software architecture

14 Common Avionics- Page 147/25/2012 Electronic Data Sheet (EDS)

15 Common Avionics- Page 157/25/2012 SpaceAGE bus Intra-Box Interface Definition SpaceAGE bus defines how to integrate Hardware modules together – analogous to cFE/CFS software bus Hardware modules analogous to cFE/CFS software components 2 module types defined – Hub and Node – every box has 1 Hub and one or more Nodes –Serial interfaces; Protocol agnostic Electrical interfaces- Power; Comm; Analog; Clock; Reset; Converter Sync; Module Detect Mechanical interface – Card frame –No backplane nor chassis –X&Y dimensions defined – Z (height) not defined (flexible) FOMs: –Minimize NRE (cost and schedule) –Broad mission applicability – supports all reliability schemes (cross-strapped, etc.) –Incremental Design

16 Common Avionics- Page 167/25/2012 Node Module Node Module Node Module Hub Module SpaceAGE Bus Architecture Legend SpaceAGE Bus Interface power comm. analog miscellaneous signals typically used for avionics systems

17 Common Avionics- Page 177/25/2012 Heater Card Heater Card Prop Card Prop Card Pyro Card Pyro Card External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module RIU Example using Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) Approach Time Triggered TTP/C (~10 MHz), with Bus Guardian Legend Processing, implementation not specified (could be embedded in FPGA) TTP/C Switch External I/F to Higher Controller External I/F to Higher Controller Time Epoch Time Slot Hypervisor implementing skinny version of time-space partitioning Synchronized to Time-triggered data bus

18 Common Avionics- Page 187/25/2012 External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module Distributed IMA (DIMA) Approach Time Triggered TTP/C (~10 MHz), with Bus Guardian Legend Processing, implementation not specified (could be embedded in FPGA) TTP/C Switch External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module Node CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 3 Function 1 Control Application Function 1 Control Application Function 2 Control Application Function 2 Control Application Function 3 Control Application Function 3 Control Application Operating System Operating System CPU 1 CPU 1 Operating System Operating System CPU 2 CPU 2 Operating System Operating System CPU 3 CPU 3 CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 3 sleep Multiple Timelines Illustrating Distributed Processing Concurrently

19 Common Avionics- Page 197/25/2012 Application of SpaceAge Bus

20 Common Avionics- Page 207/25/2012 Implementation Example - Altair

21 Common Avionics- Page 217/25/2012 Altair Avionics Design Approach (Distribution Process) Break vehicle up into sectors –AM and AL into quadrants –DM into upper and lower quadrants Gather the MEL components (sensors and actuators) into the various sectors per subsystem function –From ProE vehicle layout drawing Select module functions to perform requirement Estimate board and box sizes and locate Distributed Avionics Units based upon data to minimize harness mass –Rule of thumb – keep sensors and efforts within 10 feet of Remote Interface Unit (RIU) – point where harness mass dominates box mass –Otherwise consider adding additional RIU in area Reliability analysis Iterate

22 Common Avionics- Page 227/25/2012 Location on Vehicle (Example: AM Functions per Quadrant)

23 Common Avionics- Page 237/25/2012 Propulsion Functions per Module/Sector

24 Common Avionics- Page 247/25/2012 Distributed Avionics Unit Configuration Cabled Interfaces (just Power & Comm. Shown)

25 Common Avionics- Page 257/25/2012 Example RIU - AM Monitor 1 E-A- CH18D4H32DA T-A- CH16V6H32DA Power Supply & Controller End Cap ECLSS ATCS C&DH C&T Power GN&C Mech Prop Structure ATCS End Cap Functional Description: C&T RF Switches ECLSS Vent valves LGC system Potable water Suit loop Swing bed control Cabin air supply Cabin air return Cabin Waste venting ATCS Pumps Accumulator Propylene Glycol Loop Power Switching Location: AM Pressurized Size: 10 x 7.5 x 6.5 (L x W x H) L x W = mounting surface (includes 0.75 flange) W x H = connector face Functional Description: C&T RF Switches ECLSS Vent valves LGC system Potable water Suit loop Swing bed control Cabin air supply Cabin air return Cabin Waste venting ATCS Pumps Accumulator Propylene Glycol Loop Power Switching Location: AM Pressurized Size: 10 x 7.5 x 6.5 (L x W x H) L x W = mounting surface (includes 0.75 flange) W x H = connector face P-A-CH16H E-A- CH18D4H32DA ConRPC1 FET2 FET 3 FETAnalog InputsDigital Inputs Power Wiring C&DH Wiring22 AWG NameType Relay RPC Sw Serv H RD VD SMD NSI VS T P dP L Fl O2 Q Pl Network Serial RPM Power Services AWG ?? Power Services AWG 16 TP Power Services AWG 20 TP AWG 22 TSPAWG 26 TSP AWG 26 TST Harness Mass (80 10ft) Mass (Kg) Power (W) TOTAL kg Controller & PSHUB-6U AM C&T Monitor 1C-6U-CH18D4H32DA AM ECLSS Monitor 1E-6U-CH18D4H32DA AM ATCS Monitor 1T-6U-CH16V6H32DA AM Monitor 1, SSC 1S-6U-CH AM Monitor 1, SSC 2S-6U-CH Internal Harness 0.85 End Caps (2 ea) 0.54

26 Common Avionics- Page 267/25/2012 Example RIU - AM Prop Monitor ECLSS ATCS C&DH C&T Power GN&C Mech Prop Structure ATCS P-A- CH11T32DA Power Supply & Controller End Cap P-A- CH11T32DA Functional Description: Prop He Tanks Status He Tanks Iso Valves MMH Tanks Status MMH Tanks Iso Valves NTO Tanks Status NTO Tanks Iso Valves Power Switching Location: AM Unpressurized Size: 10 x 5.5 x 6.5 (L x W x H) L x W = mounting surface (includes 0.75 flange) W x H = connector face Functional Description: Prop He Tanks Status He Tanks Iso Valves MMH Tanks Status MMH Tanks Iso Valves NTO Tanks Status NTO Tanks Iso Valves Power Switching Location: AM Unpressurized Size: 10 x 5.5 x 6.5 (L x W x H) L x W = mounting surface (includes 0.75 flange) W x H = connector face P-A-CH16H ConRPC1 FET2 FET 3 FETAnalog InputsDigital Inputs Power WiringC&DH Wiring22 AWG NameType Relay RPC Sw Serv H RD VD SMD NSI VS T P dP L Fl O2 Q Pl Network Serial RPM Power Services AWG ?? Power Services AWG 16 TP Power Services AWG 20 TP AWG 22 TSPAWG 26 TSP AWG 26 TST Harness Mass (49 10ft) Mass (Kg) Power (W) TOTAL Controller & PSHUB-6U AM Prop Mon AMEP-6U-CH11T32DA AM Prop Mon AMEP-6U-CH11T32DA AM Prop Monitor, SSC 1S-6U-CH Internal Harness 0.65 End Caps (2 ea) 0.54

27 Common Avionics- Page 277/25/2012 Avionics Totals ConRPC1 FET2 FET 3 FETAnalog InputsDigital Inputs Power WiringC&DH Wiring22AWG ModuleBox Relay RPC Sw Serv H RF SW VD SMD NSI VS T P dP L Fl O2 Q Pl Network Serial RPM Power Services AWG ?? Power Services AWG 16 TP Power Services AWG 20 TP AWG 22 TSPAWG 26 TSP AWG 26 TST # wires 10ft) Harness Mass Mass (Kg) Power (W) Grand Total AM Total AM Monitor 1 Total AM Monitor 2 Total AM Prop Monitor Total AM RCS Driver 1 Total AM RCS Driver 2 Total AM RCS Driver 3 Total AM RCS Driver 4 Total AM Pyro Driver (P) Total AM Pyro Driver (R) Total AM MBSU Total AM PDU 1 Total AM PDU 2 Total DM Total DM Monitor 1 Total DM Prop Mon MPS 1 Total DM Prop Mon MPS 2 Total DM RCS Driver 1 Total DM RCS Mon Driver 2 Total DM RCS Driver 3 Total DM RCS Driver 4 Total DM Pyro Driver (P) Total DM Pyro Driver (R) Total DM MBSU Total DM PDU 1 Total DM PDU 2 Total AL Total AL ECLSS Monitor Total AL PDU Total

28 Common Avionics- Page 287/25/2012 Portion of Altair C&DH MEL

29 Common Avionics- Page 297/25/2012 LCRD Example

30 Common Avionics- Page 307/25/2012 Building Blocks Used on LCRD Three building block elements initially developed –Reprogrammable Digital board –Analog board –Memory board Schematics developed initially under constellation funding Layout and reviews done under LCRD funding Boards can be interconnected within modules to form different functional modules –HUB – Digital board and Analog board –Data Processing Storage Unit (DPSU) – Digital board and Memory board –Channel Coding Output Buffer (CCOB) – 2 Digital boards Approach allowed different combinations of boards and modules to be traded to match performance requirements –Allowed board development to continue as system changed

31 Common Avionics- Page 317/25/2012 LCRD Application of Building Blocks Data Processing and Storage Unit (DPSU) –Stores high rate data for Payload operational modes –Supports store and forward function –Provides T&C interfaces to CEs through SpaceWire Channel Coding and Output Buffer (CCOB) (2) –Multi-rate gigabit non-blocking, crossbar switch to internal/external functional elements (DPSU, CCOB and Integrated Modems) –Performs Forward Error Correction (FEC) decode/encode based on Integrated Modem operational mode –Provides translation of frame format and data link buffering to switch –Performs channel data interleave/de-interleave function DPSU CCOB 1 CCOB 2 Integrated Modem 1 Integrated Modem 2 HSE CE1CE2 SpW1 SpW2 SpW1

32 Common Avionics- Page 327/25/2012 Digital Board Layout

33 Common Avionics- Page 337/25/2012 Layout of Memory Module

34 Common Avionics- Page 347/25/2012 LCRD High Speed Electronics (HSE) Mechanical

35 Common Avionics- Page 357/25/2012 End – Thank you

36 Common Avionics- Page 367/25/2012 Comm Module Comm Module SSR Module SSR Module External Analog Tlm Module External Analog Tlm Module C&DH – Single String (LRO Mapping using LCRD elements) SpaceWire Legend Embedded processor in FPGA External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module Mil-Std 1553b Low rate SpaceWire using Manchester encoding over intra-box interface Gigabit SpaceWire 2 (SpaceFiber protocol) over intra-box interface Instrument B I/F Instrument A I/F Instrument C I/F UART I/F Comm Module: 2 Digital boards SSR Module: 1 Digital board & 1 Memory board Hub Module: 1 Digital board & 1 Analog board External Analog Tlm Module: New design

37 Common Avionics- Page 377/25/2012 Comm Module Comm Module SSR Module SSR Module External Analog Tlm External Analog Tlm C&DH – Redundant Processor (LRO Mapping using LCRD elements) SpaceWire Legend Embedded Self Checking Pairs (SCP); One BC other Monitor on 1553 External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module Mil-Std 1553b Mil-Std 1553b; one Hub module BC, other Hub Module Monitor, switchable through backdoor control over SpaceWire Low rate SpaceWire using Manchester encoding over intra-box interface Gigabit SpaceWire 2 (SpaceFiber protocol) over intra-box interface Instrument B I/F Instrument A I/F Instrument C I/F UART I/F Comm Module: 2 Digital boards SSR Module: 1 Digital board & 1 Memory board Hub Module: 1 Digital board & 1 Analog board External Analog Tlm Module: New design

38 Common Avionics- Page 387/25/2012 Backup

39 Common Avionics- Page 397/25/2012 SpaceAge Bus – Electrical

40 Common Avionics- Page 407/25/2012 Node Module Node Module Node Module *EMI Filter *EMI Filter Power In Hub Module Power - Single Voltage Distribution Non-Digital Power and Return, Redundant Pair (LCRD implementation used primary power) Power Switch Legend * * Power conversion could also be done here (LCRD does not)

41 Common Avionics- Page 417/25/2012 Node Module Node Module Node Module *X-Bar Switch External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module Communications - Serial Full Duplex 2 uni-directional differential pairs, i.e., need to encode data & clock on same pair Legend Non-Blocking, protocol agnostic – multiple different protocols may be bridged via switch (LCRD uses SpaceWire 2 – new multi-Gigabit version of SpaceWire) * *

42 Common Avionics- Page 427/25/2012 Node Module Node Module Node Module Node Module Node Module Node Module External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module Processing 2 uni-directional differential pairs, used for communicating with Nodes Legend Processing, implementation not specified (could be embedded in FPGA)

43 Common Avionics- Page 437/25/2012 Node Module Node Module Node Module HUB Internal Analog Tlm Hub Module Analog Telemetry Gathering 1 Analog signal and ground pair Legend ADC OutIn Ana Mux I0I0 I1I1 Sel Out

44 Common Avionics- Page 447/25/2012 Node Module Node Module Node Module Clock Gen Clock Gen Hub Module Clock Distribution Differential pair, Node defined, may be different between nodes. Multiple uses - could be 1 Hz pulse, etc. Legend

45 Common Avionics- Page 457/25/2012 Node Module Node Module Node Module Reset Gen Reset Gen Hub Module Reset Distribution Legend Signal and Return (Return shared with Sense signal), Node defined electrical and protocol

46 Common Avionics- Page 467/25/2012 Node Module Node Module Node Module Sense Detect Sense Detect Hub Module Node Presence Sense Legend Signal and Return (Return shared with Sense signal), Allows hot-plugability of Node

47 Common Avionics- Page 477/25/2012 Node Module Node Module Node Module Converter Sync Converter Sync Hub Module Nodes Converter Sync Signal Legend Signal and Return same as Power Return, Used to reduce EMI by synchronizing switching converters on each Node

48 Common Avionics- Page 487/25/2012 SpaceAge Bus – Mechanical

49 Common Avionics- Page 497/25/2012 Assembled System View (Modules with EMI Shields)

50 Common Avionics- Page 507/25/2012 Transparent View (Modules without EMI Shields)

51 Common Avionics- Page 517/25/2012 L-Bracket (Front – Module Side)

52 Common Avionics- Page 527/25/2012 L-Bracket (Back – Harness Side)

53 Common Avionics- Page 537/25/2012 Suggested Cross Section View for HUB Enclosure

54 Common Avionics- Page 547/25/2012 Suggested HUB Architecture (Digital Section)

55 Common Avionics- Page 557/25/2012 Suggested HUB Architecture (Analog TLM & Power)

56 Common Avionics- Page 567/25/2012 SpaceAGE Bus Signal Assignments

57 Common Avionics- Page 577/25/2012 Example RIU - AL ECLSS Monitor ECLSS ATCS C&DH C&T Power GN&C Mech Prop Structure ATCS Power Supply & Controller End Cap Functional Description: ECLSS High pressure O2 control PLSS Size: 10" x 3.5 x 6.5" (L x W x H) L x W = mounting surface (includes 0.75 flange) W x H = connector face Functional Description: ECLSS High pressure O2 control PLSS Size: 10" x 3.5 x 6.5" (L x W x H) L x W = mounting surface (includes 0.75 flange) W x H = connector face E-A- CH18D4H32DA ConRPC1 FET2 FET 3 FETAnalog InputsDigital Inputs Power WiringC&DH Wiring22 AWG NameType Relay RPC Sw Serv H RD VD SMD NSI VS T P dP L Fl O2 Q Pl Network Serial RPM Power Services AWG ?? Power Services AWG 16 TP Power Services AWG 20 TP AWG 22 TSPAWG 26 TSP AWG 26 TST Harness Mass (22 10ft) Mass (Kg) Power (W) TOTALS kg Controller & PSHUB-6U ECLSSE-6U-CH18D4H32DA Internal Harness 0.45 End Caps (2 ea) 0.54

58 Common Avionics- Page 587/25/2012 DM Functions per Quadrant

59 Common Avionics- Page 597/25/2012 AL Functions per Quadrant

60 Common Avionics- Page 607/25/2012 DM Propulsion Functions

61 Common Avionics- Page 617/25/2012 DM Propulsion Bay 3 Upper/Lower


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