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Common Avionics Approach

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1 Common Avionics Approach
07/25/2012 Common Avionics Approach SpaceAGE Bus & cFE/CFS: Software & Hardware Component Based Architecture Presenters: Jonathan Wilmot & Glenn Rakow NASA-GSFC

2 Background: Avionics Current Practice
Each organization that builds space systems has their own approach to implementation, so within organizations there are de facto standards Necessary to save money Or make profit However among space builders there is little interoperability Mechanical approach differences Electrical interfaces differences Software architecture differences Even though the implementation methods used are very similar Procured Single Board Computer – BAE Rad750, Leon 3 Bus protocols – Mil-Std-1553, SpaceWire Mechanical approach – Backplane in mechanical chassis etc.

3 Basic Tenets – Common Avionics
Standards – Interfaces, protocols, electronic data sheets, examples: CCSDS AOS, Internet Protocol (IP), xTEDS Software architectures, examples: Frameworks, design patterns, Application Programmer Interfaces (API), Hardware – Interfaces, form factors, protocols, examples: SpaceWire, Mil 1553b, RMAP, USB PnP, 6U Each of these can stand alone and be applied to a wide variety of missions Missions may use 1553, or CCSDS AOS but can not interoperate Current approach for many organizations Common Avionics are defined by the intersection Each organization can define it’s own intersection, common only to that organization Example: AFRL Space Plug-and-play Avionics (SPA) Hardware Software Standards Common Avionics

4 Common Avionics Goal Reduce Non Recurring Engineering cost of space avionics through reuse Be applicable to majority of space missions both robotics and crew rated vehicles Compatibility of avionics between vendors Necessary for Human Exploration Programs Develop different vehicles/systems from same components Increase pool of compatible products Focus limited resources to create synergy in space industry Technology independent – focus on interfaces not implementations Protocols not defined Few possibilities - allows space community to converge based upon demand Provides system engineer flexibility Stream-line integration of avionics components (hardware & software) similar to commercial “plug-n-play”

5 Common Avionics Business Model
Encourage exchange of designs in open market that may be integrated to implement system Designs may have different levels of compatibility but market forces should force convergence to small group of options Government agencies use tech transfer offices to make designs available to industry that can then be purchased on open market Current example: GSFC developed the SpaceWire Test Set (SWTS) hardware and software. Via Tech Transfer office, SWTS designs provided to support contractor, who markets and sells the SWTS product. Effort involves procuring the Printed Wiring Board (PWB), outsource the PWB assembly, and test with software. To date 150 SWTS have been built for multiple agencies and projects Currently, GSFC cFE/CFS and SpaceWire IP core (both software products) are widely distributed and used on non-GSFC missions Help is needed in developing a governance model for maintaining/updating code

6 Potential New Budget Model
Avionics cost savings Cost Reuse Build-to-Print Development cost => Build-to-Print Hardware cost approaches a reduction of 80-90% Based upon LCRD HSE budget Reduction of quality assurance and system engineering due to COTS component Reduction of risks Reduction of documentation Reduction of schedule and manpower Time is money => delay requires funding to carry manpower longer Less development

7 Building Block Elements
Definition: Building block element is a software or hardware functional standalone unit of implementation with completely defined interfaces, so that they can be integrated together to form increasingly complex systems. Examples: Hardware Printed Wiring Boards (PWBs) built to a standard mechanical form factor with defined electrical interfaces Modules – comprised of a single or multiple PWBs integrated together into a mechanical card frame to form a increasingly complex function Software Software component that has interface to a defined software bus so that a publish/subscribe messaging service Hypervisor – supports low level time-space partitioning to protect the operating system from crashing

8 Software Engineering Division NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
NASA/GSFC’s Flight Software Architecture: Core Flight Executive and Core Flight System Jonathan Wilmot Software Engineering Division NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

9 cFE/CFS Introduction Core Flight System (CFS)
A Flight Software Architecture consisting of the cFE Core, CFS Libraries, and CFS Applications core Flight Executive (cFE) A framework of mission independent, re-usable, core flight software services and operating environment For cFE/CFS, each element is a separate loadable file CFS App CFS App CFS App core Flight Executive (cFE) CFS App CFS App CFS App CFS Library CFS Library

10 CFS Flight Software Layers
CFS App 1 CFS App 2 CFS App N Mission App 1 Mission App 2 Mission App N Mission and CFS Application Layer CFS Library Mission Library Mission and CFS Library Layer cFE Core CFE Core Layer OS Abstraction Layer cFE Platform Support Package Abstraction Library Layer Real Time OS Real Time OS Board Support Package RTOS / BOOT Layer RTEMS, VxWorks, Linux Mission Developed PROM Boot FSW GSFC Developed 3rd Party

11 07/25/2012 cFE Core - Overview A set of mission independent, re-usable, core flight software services and operating environment Provides standardized Application Programmer Interfaces (API) Supports and hosts flight software applications Applications can be added and removed at run-time (eases system integration and FSW maintenance) Supports software development for on-board FSW, desktop FSW development and simulators Supports a variety of hardware platforms Contains platform and mission configuration parameters that are used to tailor the cFE for a specific platform and mission. Executive Services (ES) Event Services (EVS) Software Bus (SB) Table Services (TBL) Time Services (TIME)

12 Exemplar GSFC Flight Software Architecture
07/25/2012 Exemplar GSFC Flight Software Architecture Sensors & Actuators Instruments Mass Storage File System Sensor/actuator I/O handlers Hardware I/Fs Hardware I/Fs Limit Checker Memory Stored Commanding Space Wire Instrument Managers CFDP File Transfer Manager Data Device adapters Storage Attitude Determination & Control Orbit Models Solar Array High-Gain Antenna Software Scheduler File Manager Local Storage EDAC Housekeeping Inter-task Message Router (SW Bus) Memory Manager Scrubber 1553 Bus Support Software Bus Time Executive Telemetry Output Command Ingest Event Table Services Services Services Services C&DH Components Commands GN&C Components Communication Interfaces 1553 Hardware cFE Components Real-time Telemetry File downlink (CFDP) via SpaceWire Note - Some connection omitted for simplicity

13 Facets of Common Avionics
07/25/2012 Facets of Common Avionics Software NASA cFE/CFS example of a component software architecture Hardware SpaceAGE bus (intra-box interface definition) Modular Standalone Scalable Interface Control Document definition Maintain reasonable flexibility with these area Examples: Software – allow different operation systems Hardware – allow different protocols Electronic Data Sheet (EDS) – work with different software architecture

14 Electronic Data Sheet (EDS)
07/25/2012 Electronic Data Sheet (EDS)

15 SpaceAGE bus Intra-Box Interface Definition
07/25/2012 SpaceAGE bus Intra-Box Interface Definition SpaceAGE bus defines how to integrate Hardware modules together – analogous to cFE/CFS software bus Hardware modules analogous to cFE/CFS software components 2 module types defined – Hub and Node – every box has 1 Hub and one or more Nodes Serial interfaces; Protocol agnostic Electrical interfaces- Power; Comm; Analog; Clock; Reset; Converter Sync; Module Detect Mechanical interface – Card frame No backplane nor chassis X&Y dimensions defined – Z (height) not defined (flexible) FOMs: Minimize NRE (cost and schedule) Broad mission applicability – supports all reliability schemes (cross-strapped, etc.) Incremental Design

16 SpaceAGE Bus Architecture
07/25/2012 SpaceAGE Bus Architecture Node Module Node Module Node Module Hub Module Node Module Node Module Node Module Node Module Legend SpaceAGE Bus Interface power comm. analog miscellaneous signals typically used for avionics systems

17 RIU Example using Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) Approach
07/25/2012 Heater Card Pyro Card Prop Card Epoch Epoch Time TTP/C Switch External I/F to Higher Controller Time Slot External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module Hypervisor implementing “skinny” version of time-space partitioning Synchronized to Time-triggered data bus Legend Time Triggered TTP/C (~10 MHz), with Bus Guardian Processing, implementation not specified (could be embedded in FPGA)

18 Distributed IMA (DIMA) Approach
07/25/2012 Distributed IMA (DIMA) Approach Function 1 Control Application Function 2 Control Application Function 3 Control Application Operating System Operating System Operating System CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 3 CPU 1 sleep sleep sleep sleep TTP/C Switch CPU 2 sleep sleep CPU 1 External Vehicle Control Bus CPU 2 External Vehicle Control Bus CPU 3 External Vehicle Control Bus CPU 3 sleep sleep Hub Module Hub Module Hub Module Multiple Timelines Illustrating Distributed Processing Concurrently Node Node Node Node Node Node Legend Time Triggered TTP/C (~10 MHz), with Bus Guardian Processing, implementation not specified (could be embedded in FPGA)

19 Application of SpaceAge Bus
07/25/2012 Application of SpaceAge Bus

20 Implementation Example - Altair
07/25/2012 Implementation Example - Altair

21 Altair Avionics Design Approach (Distribution Process)
Break vehicle up into sectors AM and AL into quadrants DM into upper and lower quadrants Gather the MEL components (sensors and actuators) into the various sectors per subsystem function From ProE vehicle layout drawing Select module functions to perform requirement Estimate board and box sizes and locate Distributed Avionics Units based upon data to minimize harness mass Rule of thumb – keep sensors and efforts within 10 feet of Remote Interface Unit (RIU) – point where harness mass dominates box mass Otherwise consider adding additional RIU in area Reliability analysis Iterate

22 Location on Vehicle (Example: AM Functions per Quadrant)

23 Propulsion Functions per Module/Sector

24 Distributed Avionics Unit Configuration
Cabled Interfaces (just Power & Comm. Shown)

25 Example RIU - AM Monitor 1
07/25/2012 Example RIU - AM Monitor 1 Con RPC 1 FET 2 FET 3 FET Analog Inputs Digital Inputs Power Wiring C&DH Wiring 22 AWG Name Type Relay Sw Serv H RD VD SMD NSI VS T P dP L Fl O2 Q Pl Network Serial RPM Power Services AWG ?? Power Services AWG 16 TP Power Services AWG 20 TP AWG 22 TSP AWG 26 TSP AWG 26 TST Harness Mass (80 10ft) Mass (Kg) Power (W)  TOTAL 26 8 18 1 25 4 10 2 3 6 27 49 5.6 kg 7.81 21.00 Controller & PS HUB-6U 1.07 4.80 AM C&T Monitor 1 C-6U-CH18D4H32DA 13 0.98 AM ECLSS Monitor 1 E-6U-CH18D4H32DA 14 15 30 2.23 AM ATCS Monitor 1 T-6U-CH16V6H32DA 5 2.78 AM Monitor 1, SSC 1 S-6U-CH16 5.11 AM Monitor 1, SSC 2 Internal Harness 0.85 End Caps (2 ea) 0.54 Functional ATCS Description: Pumps Accumulator Propylene Glycol Loop C&T Power RF Switches Switching ECLSS Location: Vent valves AM Pressurized LGC system Potable water Size: Suit loop 10” x 7.5” x 6.5” (L x W x H) Swing bed control L x W = mounting surface (includes 0.75” flange) Cabin air supply Cabin air return W x H = connector face Cabin Waste venting ATCS C&DH End Cap End Cap C&T ATCS Power Supply & Controller E-A-CH18D4H32DA E-A-CH18D4H32DA T-A-CH16V6H32DA P-A-CH16H P-A-CH16H ECLSS Power GN&C Mech Prop Structure

26 Example RIU - AM Prop Monitor
07/25/2012 Example RIU - AM Prop Monitor Con RPC 1 FET 2 FET 3 FET Analog Inputs Digital Inputs Power Wiring C&DH Wiring 22 AWG Name Type Relay Sw Serv H RD VD SMD NSI VS T P dP L Fl O2 Q Pl Network Serial RPM Power Services AWG ?? Power Services AWG 16 TP Power Services AWG 20 TP AWG 22 TSP AWG 26 TSP AWG 26 TST Harness Mass (49 10ft) Mass (Kg) Power (W)  TOTAL 13 19 10 6 9 4 1 30 3.4 5.47 11.93 Controller & PS HUB-6U 1.07 4.80 AM Prop Mon AME P-6U-CH11T32DA 5 3 2 15 1.01 14 AM Prop Monitor, SSC 1 S-6U-CH16 5.11 Internal Harness 0.65 End Caps (2 ea) 0.54 Functional Description: Location: AM Unpressurized Prop Size: He Tanks Status He Tanks Iso Valves 10” x 5.5” x 6.5” (L x W x H) MMH Tanks Status L x W = mounting surface (includes 0.75” flange) MMH Tanks Iso Valves NTO Tanks Status W x H = connector face NTO Tanks Iso Valves Power Switching ATCS C&DH End Cap End Cap ATCS C&T Power Supply & Controller P-A-CH11T32DA P-A-CH11T32DA P-A-CH16H ECLSS Power GN&C Mech Prop Structure

27 Avionics Totals 07/25/2012 Con RPC 1 FET 2 FET 3 FET Analog Inputs
Digital Inputs Power Wiring C&DH Wiring 22AWG Module Box Relay Sw Serv H RF SW VD SMD NSI VS T P dP L Fl O2 Q Pl Network Serial RPM Power Services AWG ?? Power Services AWG 16 TP Power Services AWG 20 TP AWG 22 TSP AWG 26 TSP AWG 26 TST # wires 10ft) Harness Mass Mass (Kg) Power (W) Grand Total 15 150 249 121 18 289 58 225 271 170 10 6 3 14 17 26 4 96 501 752 204.02 342.74 AM Total 5 65 59 16 120 1 20 86 130 70 2 12 42 216 318 535 37.4 88.87 151.82 AM Monitor 1 Total 8 25 27 49 80 5.6 7.71 21.00 AM Monitor 2 Total 35 7 38 78 116 8.88 22.02 AM Prop Monitor Total 13 19 9 30 3.4 5.37 11.93 AM RCS Driver 1 Total 28 39 67 4.7 4.20 10.72 AM RCS Driver 2 Total AM RCS Driver 3 Total AM RCS Driver 4 Total AM Pyro Driver (P) Total 11 0.8 6.15 AM Pyro Driver (R) Total AM MBSU Total 22.38 6.05 AM PDU 1 Total 10.26 18.13 AM PDU 2 Total 24 9.05 17.51 DM Total 76 62 162 132 138 97 50 278 418 693 48.4 106.66 172.73 DM Monitor 1 Total 36 34 48 126 8.8 20.27 DM Prop Mon MPS 1 Total 32 44 23 133 9.3 20.65 DM Prop Mon MPS 2 Total 110 7.7 DM RCS Driver 1 Total 21 6.54 16.26 DM RCS Mon Driver 2 Total 55 93 6.5 17.97 DM RCS Driver 3 Total 4.3 15.28 DM RCS Driver 4 Total DM Pyro Driver (P) Total 1.4 6.83 DM Pyro Driver (R) Total DM MBSU Total 29.60 6.67 DM PDU 1 Total 9.09 13.03 DM PDU 2 Total 29 AL Total 22 1.5 8.49 18.19 AL ECLSS Monitor Total 3.03 7.03 AL PDU Total 5.45 11.15

28 Portion of Altair C&DH MEL
07/25/2012 Portion of Altair C&DH MEL

29 07/25/2012 LCRD Example

30 Building Blocks Used on LCRD
07/25/2012 Building Blocks Used on LCRD Three building block elements initially developed Reprogrammable Digital board Analog board Memory board Schematics developed initially under constellation funding Layout and reviews done under LCRD funding Boards can be interconnected within modules to form different functional modules HUB – Digital board and Analog board Data Processing Storage Unit (DPSU) – Digital board and Memory board Channel Coding Output Buffer (CCOB) – 2 Digital boards Approach allowed different combinations of boards and modules to be traded to match performance requirements Allowed board development to continue as system changed

31 LCRD Application of Building Blocks
07/25/2012 LCRD Application of Building Blocks Data Processing and Storage Unit (DPSU) Stores high rate data for Payload operational modes Supports store and forward function Provides T&C interfaces to CEs through SpaceWire Channel Coding and Output Buffer (CCOB) (2) Multi-rate gigabit non-blocking, crossbar switch to internal/external functional elements (DPSU, CCOB and Integrated Modems) Performs Forward Error Correction (FEC) decode/encode based on Integrated Modem operational mode Provides translation of frame format and data link buffering to switch Performs channel data interleave/de-interleave function HSE CE1 CE2 SpW1 SpW1 DPSU SpW2 SpW2 CCOB 1 CCOB 2 Integrated Modem 1 Integrated Modem 2

32 07/25/2012 Digital Board Layout

33 Layout of Memory Module
07/25/2012 Layout of Memory Module

34 LCRD High Speed Electronics (HSE) Mechanical
07/25/2012 LCRD High Speed Electronics (HSE) Mechanical

35 07/25/2012 End – Thank you

36 (LRO Mapping using LCRD elements)
C&DH – Single String (LRO Mapping using LCRD elements) 07/25/2012 External Analog Tlm Module Comm Module SSR Module Instrument A I/F Instrument B I/F Instrument C I/F External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module Comm Module: 2 Digital boards SSR Module: 1 Digital board & 1 Memory board Hub Module: 1 Digital board & 1 Analog board External Analog Tlm Module: New design Mil-Std 1553b Legend SpaceWire Low rate SpaceWire using Manchester encoding over intra-box interface Gigabit SpaceWire 2 (SpaceFiber protocol) over intra-box interface UART I/F Embedded processor in FPGA Mil-Std 1553b

37 C&DH – Redundant Processor (LRO Mapping using LCRD elements)
07/25/2012 External Analog Tlm Comm Module SSR Module Instrument A I/F Instrument B I/F Instrument C I/F External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module Comm Module: 2 Digital boards SSR Module: 1 Digital board & 1 Memory board Hub Module: 1 Digital board & 1 Analog board External Analog Tlm Module: New design Mil-Std 1553b Legend SpaceWire Low rate SpaceWire using Manchester encoding over intra-box interface Gigabit SpaceWire 2 (SpaceFiber protocol) over intra-box interface UART I/F Embedded Self Checking Pairs (SCP); One BC other Monitor on 1553 Mil-Std 1553b; one Hub module BC, other Hub Module Monitor, switchable through backdoor control over SpaceWire

38 07/25/2012 Backup

39 SpaceAge Bus – Electrical
07/25/2012 SpaceAge Bus – Electrical

40 Power - Single Voltage Distribution
07/25/2012 Power - Single Voltage Distribution Node Module Node Module Node Module *EMI Filter Node Module Node Module Power In Hub Module Node Module Node Module Legend Non-Digital Power and Return, Redundant Pair (LCRD implementation used primary power) Power Switch * Power conversion could also be done here (LCRD does not)

41 Communications - Serial Full Duplex
07/25/2012 Communications - Serial Full Duplex Node Module Node Module Node Module *X-Bar Switch Node Module Node Module External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module Node Module Node Module Legend 2 uni-directional differential pairs, i.e., need to encode data & clock on same pair Non-Blocking, protocol agnostic – multiple different protocols may be bridged via switch (LCRD uses SpaceWire 2 – new multi-Gigabit version of SpaceWire) *

42 07/25/2012 Processing Node Module Node Module Node Module Node Module Node Module External Vehicle Control Bus Hub Module Node Module Node Module Legend 2 uni-directional differential pairs, used for communicating with Nodes Processing, implementation not specified (could be embedded in FPGA)

43 Analog Telemetry Gathering
07/25/2012 Analog Telemetry Gathering Node Module Node Module Node Module ADC Out In Node Module Node Module Ana Mux I0 I1 Sel Out HUB Internal Analog Tlm Hub Module Node Module Node Module Legend 1 Analog signal and ground pair

44 Clock Distribution Legend
07/25/2012 Clock Distribution Node Module Node Module Node Module Clock Gen Node Module Node Module Hub Module Node Module Node Module Legend Differential pair, Node defined, may be different between nodes. Multiple uses - could be 1 Hz pulse, etc.

45 Reset Distribution Legend
07/25/2012 Reset Distribution Node Module Node Module Node Module Reset Gen Node Module Node Module Hub Module Node Module Node Module Legend Signal and Return (Return shared with “Sense” signal), Node defined electrical and protocol

46 Node Presence “Sense” Legend
07/25/2012 Node Presence “Sense” Node Module Node Module Node Module Sense Detect Node Module Node Module Hub Module Node Module Node Module Legend Signal and Return (Return shared with “Sense” signal), Allows hot-plugability of Node

47 Nodes “Converter Sync” Signal
07/25/2012 Nodes “Converter Sync” Signal Node Module Node Module Node Module Converter Sync Node Module Node Module Hub Module Node Module Node Module Legend Signal and Return same as Power Return, Used to reduce EMI by synchronizing switching converters on each Node

48 SpaceAge Bus – Mechanical
07/25/2012 SpaceAge Bus – Mechanical

49 (Modules with EMI Shields)
Assembled System View (Modules with EMI Shields) 07/25/2012

50 (Modules without EMI Shields)
Transparent View (Modules without EMI Shields) 07/25/2012

51 L-Bracket (Front – Module Side)
07/25/2012 L-Bracket (Front – Module Side)

52 L-Bracket (Back – Harness Side)
07/25/2012 L-Bracket (Back – Harness Side)

53 Suggested Cross Section View for HUB Enclosure
07/25/2012

54 Suggested HUB Architecture (Digital Section)
07/25/2012 Suggested HUB Architecture (Digital Section)

55 Suggested HUB Architecture (Analog TLM & Power)
07/25/2012 Suggested HUB Architecture (Analog TLM & Power)

56 SpaceAGE Bus Signal Assignments

57 Example RIU - AL ECLSS Monitor
07/25/2012 Example RIU - AL ECLSS Monitor Con RPC 1 FET 2 FET 3 FET Analog Inputs Digital Inputs Power Wiring C&DH Wiring 22 AWG Name Type Relay Sw Serv H RD VD SMD NSI VS T P dP L Fl O2 Q Pl Network Serial RPM Power Services AWG ?? Power Services AWG 16 TP Power Services AWG 20 TP AWG 22 TSP AWG 26 TSP AWG 26 TST Harness Mass (22 10ft) Mass (Kg) Power (W)  TOTALS 7 3 1 2 15 1.5 kg 3.13 7.03 Controller & PS HUB-6U 1.07 4.80 ECLSS E-6U-CH18D4H32DA 14 2.23 Internal Harness 0.45 End Caps (2 ea) 0.54 ATCS C&DH End Cap End Cap ATCS C&T Power Supply & Controller E-A-CH18D4H32DA Functional Description: Size: 10" x 3.5” x 6.5" (L x W x H) ECLSS L x W = mounting surface (includes 0.75” flange) High pressure O2 control W x H = connector face PLSS ECLSS Power GN&C Mech Prop Structure

58 DM Functions per Quadrant

59 AL Functions per Quadrant

60 DM Propulsion Functions

61 DM Propulsion Bay 3 Upper/Lower


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