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Chapter Three: Interconnection Structure

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1 Chapter Three: Interconnection Structure
The interconnection structure must support the following types of support: Memory to processor: the CPU reads an instruction or data from memory Processor to memory: the CPU write data to memory I/O to Processor: The CPU reads data from the I/O device via the I/O module Processor to I/O

2 Interconnection Structure
I/O to or from memory: An I/O module is allowed to change data directly with memory without going through the processor using DMA (Direct Memory Access)

3 Interconnection Structure: Bus Interconnection
A bus is a communication pathway consisting of lines and, it is connecting two or more devices A bus is considered as a shared transmission medium allowing multiple devices to connect to it However, only one device at a time can successfully transmit Several lines of the bus can be used to transmit binary digits simultaneously

4 Interconnection Structure: Bus Interconnection
For example: An 8-bit unit of data can be transmitted over 8-bus lines A bus that connect the major computer components (CPU, Memory, IO) is called System Bus A system bus may consist of 50 to hundreds of separated lines. Each line has a particular function. The Interconnection Structures are based on the use of one or more system buses.

5 Interconnection Structure: Bus Interconnection
Bus Lines can be classified based on 3 functional groups:

6 Interconnection Structure: Bus Interconnection
Bus Lines can be classified based on 3 functional groups: 1. Data Lines Provide pathway for moving data between system modules These lines are called Data Bus The lines (32 to hundreds) referred to as the width of the bus The width determines the overall system performance e.g. If the data bus is 8-bit wide, and each instruction is 16-bit long, then the processor must access the memory module twice during each instruction cycle

7 Interconnection Structure: Bus Interconnection
2. Address lines Are used to determine the source or destination of the data on the data bus. For example: The CPU puts the address of the desired word to be read from / or written to memory on the address lines The width of the address bus determine the maximum addressable memory. The address lines are also used to address I/O ports Typically:

8 Interconnection Structure: Bus Interconnection
Typically: A higher-order bits are used to select a particular module on the bus A lower-order bits are used to select a memory location or I/O port within the module For example: On an 8-bit address bus address and below might reference locations in memory module (128 words) address and above may refer to devices attached to an I/O modules.

9 Interconnection Structure: Bus Interconnection
3. Control Lines Are used to hold control signals to control the access and the use of data and address lines since these lines are shared by all components control signals transmit command and timing information between system components Timing signal indicates the validity of data and adress information Command signals specifies the type of operations to be performed

10 Interconnection Structure: Bus Interconnection
Control lines includes the following operations

11 Interconnection Structure: Bus Interconnection
Main operations of the Bus If a module wishes to send data to another module it must so two things Obtain the use of the bus Transfer data via the bus If a module wishes to request data from another module it must so two things Transfer a request to the other module over appropriate control and address lines Wait for the other module to send the data

12 Interconnection Structure: Bus Interconnection
Typical Bus Architecture Metal lines put in printed circuit board, the bus extends across over all the system components

13 Interconnection Structure: Bus Interconnection

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