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A Flexible, Effective Design of a Small Transit Bus Station in Al-Ain Graduation Project Course (GP2) Group Member : ID : Examiner Members: Aisha Al-Dhanhani200511457 Sarah Al-Dhanhani200511437 Salma Ali200508158

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Project summary Location Building detailed design Atrium space zone Services and Offices The bridge zone The Bus Movement Area Structure detailed design Tree Structure Design & Calculation Waffled slab design & calculation Basment floor suggested structure Safety consideration Conclusion Contents Graduation Project Course (GP2)

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Project Summary What is the project? This project represents a proposal for bus station in Al Ain, taking into consideration: architectural and structural engineering concepts Transportation traffic circulation Urban design of the site

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Project Summary Why this project? According to the Department of Transportation Statistics, the existing bus station is totally unprepared to serve the people current and future needs. This in turn lead Al-Ain city to suffer from lack of public transportation.

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Project Summary Objectives The main goals of this project are: Redevelop the bus station area to respond to the rising needs for a facility that would encourage people to use the public transportation. The new proposed facility would provide integration between station, the oasis and other surrounding amenities. To design a lightweight structural system that integrates physically and visually with its surroundings, particularly with the Oasis.

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Our project design Objectives are: 1. Design with added new facilities. 2. Achieve the safety circulation inside &outside the building. 3. Organize traffic circulation. 4. Visual harmony with surrounding environment. 5. Provide a flexible design of plans in term of functions. Objectives

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Architectural problem (Existing site problem ) ArchitecturalUrbanismEnvironmental No main building with facility (land mark) No services to achieve people need). Low quality appearance. Low visual perception. Unauthorized parking, No relation between the parking. Not organized circulation The location is very near to Al Ain Oasis. Orientation of the building (south west) Site Boundary Main Street Sub Street Bus stop shelter N Site Boundary Main Street Sub Street Unauthorized Parking. Bus Circulation. N Site Boundary Main Street Sub Street Alain Oasis N

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Transit structures, including stations, are subjected to a wide range of loads and forces concentrate erection. So the main engineering problem are : 1. The decision of alternative structure type that can carry the loads calculated. 2. The structure alternative required being light weight and can carry the span designed. 3. Engineer should develops the structural systems designs within the context of the archituctural concept. Engineering Problem Statement

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Location The chosen site is at the north of Al Ain Oasis and it is based on the new visionary plan Al Ain 2030, which is developed by Urban Planning council (UPC). Site Location

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Building detailed design Generally, in the bus station there are 4 main zones which are Atrium space zone Services and Offices The bridge zone The Bus Movement Area Each one of them were designed according to some specifications and challenges Services & offices Bridge zone Atrium space zone

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The integration of the building with the surrounding environment which is the oasis environment is intelligible in this zone.

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Atrium space zone Aviary project column design is inspired from the surrounded trees style. The building skin is transparent to achieve the integration with the surrounded. Tree column structure system to support the roof and its design taken from the palm tree Distribute the tree column according to the modularity and straight lines as in palm trees farms Use a glass walls to achieve the transparency and the integration

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Services and Offices Two floors contain: Vertical circulation Fire escape Offices Access to the waiting areas (bridge) Mechanical equipments (air handling units) located at the top of this zone. Services & offices Bridge zone Atrium space zone Le gend View to the oasis Main Entrance

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The bridge zone It represents a waiting area for passenger to avoid the risk that might happen in the bus circulation area or in the drop off area. Escalators were included directly in the drop area part and prevent the passengers from crossing the street.

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The Bus Movement Area The bus movement area was designed to achieve the safety for the passengers and also to avoid the traffic circulation for the buses.

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# 1Restaurant 2Toilet 3Ice cream shop 4Newspaper shop 5Mechanical room 6Electrical room 7Ticket 8Cleaning room 9Service room 10kitchen 11shop Basement floor plan scale1:500 Basment floor plan N

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# 1Pantry 2office 3Manager room 4Waiting area 5Gallery 6toilet First floor plan scale1:500 First floor plan N

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# 1shop 2Service room 3Mechanical room 4Corner shop 5toilet 6Ticket office 7Travel office 8ATM 9 Tourist information 10Electrical room 11Coffee shop Ground floor plan scale1:500 Ground floor plan N

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Site plan scale1:500 Site plan N

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Structure detailed design Tree Structure Design & Calculation Waffled slab design & calculation Basement suggested structure Graduation Project Course (GP2)

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Modular Distribution Tree Structure distribution Different tributary areas Graduation Project Course (GP2)

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Tree Structure Design X member with sub branch Crossed member Beam (purling) Tree column Tree members Tree column Roof Graduation Project Course (GP2)

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Dead Load (D.L) : 1. Weight of the upper roof (aluminum sandwich panel). 2. Weight of purling (roof beams). 3. Own weight of the tree members. Load calculation for Tree members Graduation Project Course (GP2)

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1. Upper roof weight: A A Tributary = 12.5*12.5=156.25m2 Thicknessaluminum sandwich panel Thickness of aluminum sandwich panel = 0.2m, Panel = 13.9 Kg/m2 D.L panel D.L panel = A Tributary* panel 21.72 kN = (156.25)*(13.9) = 2171.875 Kg = 21.72 kN Load calculation for Tree members Graduation Project Course (GP2)

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Load calculation for Tree members Graduation Project Course (GP2) 2. Purling weight: From LRFD manual, Table 1-5, page 1-34, C9 X 20 we select section C9 X 20, properties: Ib/ftDepth Ib/ft = 20, Depth = 9 in=0.23m, Length Length = 12.5m = 42.52ft, #purling #purling = 6 D.L of Purling 22.8 kN D.L of Purling = 20 (Ib/ft) *(42.52ft) = 850.4 Ib = 3.8 kN*6= 22.8 kN

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Load calculation for Tree members Graduation Project Course (GP2) 3. Own weight of the member: From LRFD manual, table 1-13, page 1-94, Hss 7.625X0.328, we select section Hss 7.625X0.328, Properties: Ib/ft=25.59, D= 0.2m, I = 47.1 in4=0.2 m4A Ib/ft=25.59, D= 0.2m, I = 47.1 in4=0.2 m4, A =28.5in2= 0.02m2 L of x member # of x L of x member =7.5m =24.6 ft, # of x =4 crossed L of crossed member = # of crossed member L of crossed member = 5m=16.4ft, # of crossed member = 4 # sub branch member # sub branch member = 8

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Load calculation for Tree members Graduation Project Course (GP2) 3. Own weight of the member: Weight of x main branch11.2 kN Weight of x main branch = 25.59 lb/ft*24.6 ft= 629.514 Ib =2.8 kN* 4 = 11.2 kN Weight of cross branch 8 kN Weight of cross branch = 25.59 lb/ft*16.4 ft= 419.7 Ib =1.8 kN=2 kN*4 = 8 kN weight of sub branches= 4 kN Assume that weight of sub branches = 0.5 kN *8 = 4 kN Total weight of all members 23.2 KN Total weight of all members = 11.2 + 4 + 8 = 23.2 KN

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Load calculation for Tree members Graduation Project Course (GP2) 4. Total dead load: 21.72 kN 1. Upper roof weight= 21.72 kN 22.8 kN 2. Purling weight= 22.8 kN 23.2 KN 3. weight of all members = 11.2 + 4 + 8 = 23.2 KN 67.66 kN Total dead load= 21.72+ 22.74 + 23.2 = 67.66 kN

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Load calculation for Tree members Graduation Project Course (GP2) Live Load (L.L) : From ASCE 7-05, Table 4-1, (page 13): Lo= 0.96 kN/m2 Reduction for live load(see appendix 5) Lr= Lo R1 R2 0.58 Lr 0.96 At=156.25 m2 55.74 m2 R1=0.6 Flat Roof F4 R2=1 0.58 kN/m2 Lr= 0.96*0.6*1= 0.576 = 0.58 kN/m2 90.625 kN Lr=0.58*At=0.58*156.25= 90.625 kN

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Load calculation for Tree members Graduation Project Course (GP2) Ultimate load : 67.66 kN D.L= 67.66 kN 90.625 kN L.L= 90.625 kN Using American concrete institute ACI-08: 226.2 KN Wu=1.2 D.L+1.6 L.L= 1.2*(67.66) +1.6*(90.625) = 226.2 KN

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Structure analysis for Tree members Graduation Project Course (GP2) Assumed that the total load carried equally on 16 points : P = = = 14.1375 kN Plan Member A Elevation

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Structure analysis for Tree members Graduation Project Course (GP2) Assumed that the total load carried equally on 16 points : P = = = 14.1375 kN Plan Member A Elevation

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Structure analysis for Tree members Graduation Project Course (GP2) Structure analysis for member A 3.125m 5m 14.14 kN = 38.66 A B C 28.28 kN 14.14 kN 3.125m 5m = 38.66 A 14.14 sin 14.14 cos 28.28 cos 28.28sin B C 28.28 kN 14.14 kN 3.125m 5m = 38.66 A 8.8kN 11.04kN 22.1 kN 17.5kN B C 28.28kN

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Structure analysis for Tree members Graduation Project Course (GP2) Ma =0 176.75 kN.m =14.14(6.25) + 28.28 (3.125) = 176.75 kN.m Fx a (normal force) =0 26.3 kN =8.8 + 17.5 = 26.3 kN Fy a (shear force) =0 33.14 kN =11.04 + 22.1 = 33.14 kN

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Structure analysis for Tree members Graduation Project Course (GP2) Ma Ma = 176.75 kN.m N N = 26.3 kN V V = 33.14 kN A A= 0.02m2 I I= 0.2 m4 Y Y= 0.1 m fy = 42 Ksi (289579.8 kN/m2) 1,403.4 1,403.4 Kn/m2 289579.8 kN/m2 Ok Ok

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Load calculation for Tree column Graduation Project Course (GP2) To calculate the total loads of the column we did consider: 1. Weight from tree members 2. Own weight of the column.

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Load calculation for Tree column Graduation Project Course (GP2) Wight from the Member: 226.192 kN P= 226.192 kN Own weight of the column: From LRFD manual, table 1-13, page 1-94, Hss 20X0.5, we select section Hss 20X0.5, Properties: Ib/ftD I A Ib/ft =104, D = 0.5 m, I = 1360 in4= 5.7*10-4 m4, A =28.5 in2= 0.02 m2 13 kN Own wt of the column = 104 Ib/ft * 27.9 ft = 2,901.6 Ib = 13 kNP8.5m

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Load calculation for Tree column Graduation Project Course (GP2) Total Wight on tree column: 226.192 kN P= 226.192 kN 13 kN Own wt of the column = 13 kN 239.2 kN Total weight on the column = 13 + 226.192 = 239.2 kN

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Structure analysis for Tree column Graduation Project Course (GP2) Stress check Check for global buckling Local buckling

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Load calculation for Tree column Graduation Project Course (GP2) Stress check: 11,960 F = = = 11,960 kN/m2 fy =289579.8 kN/m2

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Load calculation for Tree column Graduation Project Course (GP2) Global bulking : 1.Find (KL) is called the effective buckling length of the column, From LRFD manual, TABLE C-C2.2 (p. 16.1-240), we choose K= 2 L= length of the column = 27.9ft= 55.8 ft 55.8 ft KL= 2*27.9ft= 55.8 ft

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Load calculation for Tree column Graduation Project Course (GP2) Global bulking : 2. calculate the slenderness ratio : A572 Grade 50. Steel type = A572 Grade 50. r = 6.91 in HSS 20X0.5: r = 6.91 in Preferably should not exceed 200 No. Global bucling 96.9 200 No. Global bucling

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Load calculation for Tree column Graduation Project Course (GP2) Local bucling : From Table B4.1 of the AISC code, pages 16.1-16 to 16.1-18, For circular hollow section D/t = 43 < 0.11E/Fy = 0.11E/Fy = 0.11*(29000/50) = 63.8 No local buckling

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Waffled slab design Graduation Project Course (GP2)

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Load calculation Graduation Project Course (GP2) We did design the waffled slab in two ways: First, by using the ACI code and standard dimension. Second, by using the company standard dimension.

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Load calculation Graduation Project Course (GP2) ACI code,Dead load : From ASCE7-05 code, Table C3-2 (page 266): ϫ conc = 22.6 kN/m3 Slab own weight= thickness of the slab *unit weight of concrete* span 56.5 kN = 0.2m*22.6(kN/m3)* 12.5m = 56.5 kN From ASCE7, Table C3-1 (page 265): F.C weight = 1.58 kN/M2 493.75 kN Floor cover weight= 1.58(kn/m2) = 1.58*(12.5*25)= 493.75 kN 33.9 KN Ribs weight = (0.5*0.24)*22.6KN/m3* 12.5m = 33.9 KN 601.1kN Total D.L= 56.5 + 493.75 + 50.85= 601.1kN

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0.6m 1m 0.15m 0.8m As main As shrinkage

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Load calculation Graduation Project Course (GP2) Company code :

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Load calculation Graduation Project Course (GP2) Company code :

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Load calculation Graduation Project Course (GP2) Company code :

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L1=0.2m L2=0.233m L3=0.279m H1=0.15m H =0.35m H2=0.5m

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0.2m 0.7m

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Summary of final design and solution Summary of final design and solution

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Mixed use building Design with added new facilities Exist condition Final Design

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Achieve the outside safety circulation Organize traffic circulation Waiting area (bridge) Escalator Bus circulation Enter Exit

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17m To out side open area 17m To the ground floor(side walk) 17.4m 25m 26m Achieve inside safety circulation Basement floor plan

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17.4m 23m 14.2 m 21.2 m Achieve inside safety circulation Ground floor plan

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Visual harmony with surrounding environment

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Be in harmony with surrounding facility and environment

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Provide a flexible design of plans in term of functions

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