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© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. How to Kill 4 Birds with 1 Stone: Using Formal Verification to Validate Legal Configurations, Find Design Bugs, and Improve Testbench and Software Specifications Saurabh Shrivastava, Kavita Dangi, Darrow Chu, Mukesh Sharma
© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. Sponsored By: Page 2 Motivation How to get a head start on verification How to augment simulation based verification How to validate/verify device configuration for –Better testbench simulations –Better software output How to weed out basic bugs: –Bus contention, x-assignments, floating-bus, FSM Assign out = SEL ? in0 : 1bz; Assign out = SEL ? in1 : 1bz; Case(sel) 0: out = in0; 2: out = in1; default: out = 1bx;
© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. Sponsored By: Page 3 Older Approach Full Chip TB Block1 TB Block2 TB BlockN TB Block3 TB CFG Configuration Bus Contention X - Assignment Bus Floating Multidriver Bus Floating Multidriver FSM
© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. Sponsored By: Page 4 Limitations of Older Approach Bugs are discovered late Block and Chip level simulations are as good as stimulus Difficult to hit all scenarios due to: –Big configuration space (only handful are verified) –Big design Interesting bugs found when test benches are sophisticated!
© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. Sponsored By: Page 5 New Approach Configuration Bus Contention X - Assignment Bus Floating Multidriver Bus Floating Multidriver FSM SVA Lib Block1 RTL Block1 RTL SVA Lib BlockN RTL BlockN RTL Better TB Checkers Better TB Checkers Better Software Output Checkers for illegal config Converted to Assume Constraints White Formal TB Targets: Bus checks, X- assignments, range- checks, FSM-checks, etc Assertions are generated by the tool
© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. Sponsored By: Page 6 New Verification Flow SVA Lib Block RTL Block RTL SVA Lib Block RTL Block RTL Block/FullChip TestbenchWhite Formal Testbench Used as Checkers Software SVA Lib Block RTL Block RTL Verify Constraints: Correct & Complete Catches Incorrect Block programming Read by SW End User IP Configurator Prevents incorrect IP programming Find design bugs early Find design bugs
© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. Sponsored By: Page 7 Assertion Library Example fileA_assert_lib.sv reg [3:0] varA; reg [5:0] widthA; reg modeA; … `LIB_ASSERT_ONE_HOT(22,varA value is not compliant,varA) `LIB_ASSERT_CHECK(23,Incorect width for modeA=0,(modeA==0 && widthA==16)) assert_lib_define.svh `define LIB_ASSERT_ONE_HOT(INST,MSG,a) `ifdef FORMAL \ assume_one_hot_``INST``: assume property (@(posedge clk) $onehot0(a)); \ `else \ assert_one_hot_``INST``: assert property (@(posedge clk) $onehot0(a)) \ else begin $error ("%s: one_hot fails for a=%h\n",MSG,a); \ `endif run.log ncsim: *E,ASRTST (lib_assert_macros.sv,17): (time 17 NS) Assertion top.dut.modA.assert_one_hot_22 has failed varA value is not compliant: one_hot fails for a=b
© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. Sponsored By: Page 8 Bugs Found Incorrect library assertion causing bus contention Assign out = SEL ? in0 : 1bz; Assign out = ~SEL ? in1 : 1bz; Assign out = SEL ? in2 : 1bz; Assign out = SEL ? in3 : 1bz; `LIB_ASSERT_CHECK(sel,Select values are incorrect,(SEL==0 || SEL==1 || SEL==6 || SEL==10) Combinatorial loops State reachability and transition State deadlock issues Bus floating failures Range overflow Missing library assertions causing –bus contention –X-assignment failures –Bus floating failures
© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. Sponsored By: Page 9 Comparison: Old v/s New © Copyright 2012 Xilinx Old ApproachNew Approach Early bug discovery Exhaustive Setup time> 1 Month1-3 days Setup effort Test codingNo assertion coding ScopeTargeted Configuration verificationManual approach, limitedDoes not verify anything out of cone of logic, but verifies ALL legal cfgs for properties Tool capacity Tool issues Tool learning Only opportunistic!
© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. Sponsored By: Page 10 Future Work Multi-block verification Tool kit Enable designers to run the flow Gate level Verilog verification
© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. Sponsored By: Page 11 Summary Finding early design bug and verifying configurations is an issue Simulation based approaches have limitations White Formal is used along with SVA library to solve this problem New approach finds early bugs and verifies configuration space As a result we get better testbench and better software output
© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. Sponsored By: Page 12 White Formal X-assignment example
© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. Sponsored By: Page 13 Older Approach © Copyright 2012 Xilinx Block and Chip level testbenches Directed & pseudo-random tests for: –bus contention, X-assignment, FSM-checks Static lint for bus floating and multi-driver Configuration verification –Manual –Directed simulations
© Copyright 2013 Xilinx. Sponsored By: Page 14 Limitations of New Approach © Copyright 2012 Xilinx Only opportunistic! Works only for targeted checks Configurations outside cone of logic not verified Tool capacity: cannot be applied at chip level Tool issues Tool learning
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