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1 New Developments in Green Vehicle Technology in the U.S. January 2011 Walter Kulyk, P.E. Director, Office of Mobility Innovation Federal Transit Administration.

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Presentation on theme: "1 New Developments in Green Vehicle Technology in the U.S. January 2011 Walter Kulyk, P.E. Director, Office of Mobility Innovation Federal Transit Administration."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 New Developments in Green Vehicle Technology in the U.S. January 2011 Walter Kulyk, P.E. Director, Office of Mobility Innovation Federal Transit Administration

2 2 Overview U.S. Transit Operations U.S. Transit and Energy Transit as a Green Technology Demonstration Platform U.S. Transit Policy and Goals Electric Drive and Clean Fuels Research National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP) Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction (TIGGER) Program Hydraulic Hybrid Development Efforts Advanced Small Transit Vehicle Development Urban MAGLEV Program

3 3 Public Transit in the U.S. Passengers rode transit vehicles 55.1 billion miles in 2008 Transit use represents about two percent of U.S. passenger car mileage Transit ridership increased 38-percent from 1995 to 2008 U.S. population grew 14-percent Highway use grew 21-percent Sources: APTA & U.S. DOT BTS Demand for transit and transit ridership continues to increase

4 4 Public Transit Bus Operations 1,100 transit systems operate buses (2008) Over 50,000 buses in operation every day Transit is a leader in adopting clean fuel and advanced technology About 19% of transit buses are alternatively-powered Source: Environmental Benefits of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology in Transit, FTA-WV-26-7003-07.2

5 5 Transit & Energy Current U.S. Transportation sector is petroleum based Demand for oil will continue to outstrip supply Transit petroleum consumption is insignificant compared to overall transportation consumption However, transit is highly vulnerable to oil demand & supply disturbances

6 6 Transit & Energy The primary natural energy resource in the U.S. is coal Significant interest in replacing petroleum with electric fuel for transit Increasing role of renewables and natural gas in electric power generation Electrification of transit vehicles is the key enabler

7 7 Transit Industry: Platform for Advanced Technologies Fleet Operations Centrally fueled and maintained Professional operators and mechanics Urban stop-go duty cycle and fixed route Start-up time Federal Capital Funding Support Federal procurement funding Assistance for developing new technologies High Visibility & High Impact Operate in densely populated areas Broader public exposure and acceptance Alamodome Transit Entrance. VIA Metropolitan Transit; San Antonio, TX New Flyer Hybrid Bus. Intended for Seattle, WA

8 8 FTA Support of Clean Vehicle Technology Reduce transit bus emissions Lower greenhouse gas transportation emissions Improve fuel efficiency Fuel is second largest operating cost, and not eligible for FTA assistance Current full size transit buses achieve only 2 to 4 mpg Improve vehicle performance Consumer Acceptance/Public Relations Smoke and odor free Clean and quiet Move toward greener technologies

9 9 U.S. Transit Policy DOT Strategic Goal: Environmental Stewardship FTA Strategic Goal: Environmental Sustainability Reduced carbon and other harmful emissions Improved energy efficiency Reduced dependence on fossil fuels Reduced transportation-related air, water, and noise pollution and impacts on ecosystems

10 10 Commercial availability of zero and near-zero emissions, high efficiency, affordable transit vehicles for transit agencies across the country by 2030 from domestic suppliers To advance electric drive and related technologies to enable commercially-viable transit vehicles with significantly higher efficiencies, lower emissions, and superior performance Electric Drive Strategic Plan The Vision The Goal Specific GoalMeasure 1 Quadruple fuel efficiency of 40 transit bus Fuel economy greater than 12 miles per diesel equivalent gallon 2 Decrease transit vehicle tailpipe emissions >50% improvement over 2010 EPA requirements for heavy-duty diesel engines 3 Achieve superior performance of new transit vehicles 10 % increase in MBRC 25 % reduction of interior noise Minimum 12-year vehicle lifetime Zero safety incidents

11 11 Technical Focus Area2014 Objective2030 Objective Vehicle Energy Management Implement innovative bus energy system demonstration and evaluation program Validated energy storage systems commercially available for transit Electrification of Accessories Validate all-electric 40 bus All-electric bus commercially established Bus Design Prepare advanced propulsion bus design standards and guidelines Commercially established innovative bus design for advanced propulsion systems Rail Energy Management Implement innovative rail energy system demonstration and evaluation program Validated energy management systems commercially available for rail transit Locomotive Design Analyze alternative locomotive designs Established validation program for alternative locomotive designs Electric Drive Research Approach With support from industry stakeholders, FTA identified five focus areas, in priority order, necessary to advance technology to the 20 year vision

12 12 Support of Clean Fuels FTA Research and Accomplishments CNG successfully commercialized Over $185M in FTA support from 1988- 1990 Most common alternative fuel in transit Hybrid-electric vehicles recently commercialized Over $25M in FTA hybrid and electric drive research since 2000 Highest fuel efficiency and lowest emissions in current fleet Incentive included in budget submission for FY07 and FY08 Federal funding proposed for 100% of cost differential over an equivalent diesel bus

13 13 Fuel Cell Transit Bus FTA initiated fuel cell bus development with a feasibility study awarded to Georgetown University in 1983 Brassboard Fuel Cell Power Plant Development 1987-1990 Generation I Fuel Cell Bus Development (1991-1995) 50 kW Phosphoric Acid Fuel-Cell 75 kW DC drive motor 40 kW-hr SAFT NiCd Battery Pack 30-ft Bus Two Methanol Fueled Designs 40-ft Nova Bus Platform BAE HybriDrive Electric Drive System Generation II Fuel Cell Bus Development (1993-2001) UTC 100 kW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell 185 kW AC Induction Drive Motor 50 kW-hr Lead-Acid Battery Pack Ballard 100 kW PEM Fuel Cell 185 kW AC Induction Drive Motor 30 kW-hr Lead-Acid Battery Pack

14 14 National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP) Authorized under SAFETEA-LU Funded $49M for FYs 2006-2009 Additional $13.5M in FY 2010 50-percent non-Federal cost share Competitively selected Balanced portfolio of projects Diverse group of locations and climates Oakland, CA San Francisco, CA Thousand Palms, CA Hartford, CT Boston, MA Columbia, SC Albany, NY Austin, TX

15 15 NFCBP Highlights Fuel cell buses demonstrations in transit fleets for 2011: BAE Systems BUS 2010 project with fuel cell APU delivered to MUNI, in San Francisco Enhancing a successful Hybrid Electric Vehicle with fuel cell Auxiliary Power System (APU) Hydrogenics fuel cell, Orion bus platform Electrified accessories to increase efficiency reduce power requirements All-American Fuel Cell Bus with BAE, Ballard and El Dorado for operation in SunLine Transit in California Zero Emission Bus vehicle demo in a very hot desert climate Project enables side-by-side comparisons of a Van Hool UTC Bus and BAE System - Ballard Design

16 16 NFCBP Highlights CTE/Proterra Battery-dominant hydrogen fuel cell 35-foot bus Dual 16 Kw Hydrogenics fuel cell stacks Lightweight composite structure Advanced Lithium-Titanate batteries Demonstration in Columbia, South Carolina UTC/ISE/Van-Hool UTC 120kW PEM Fuel Cell ISE ThunderVolt Hybrid Drive Siemens ELFA Drive; two AC induction motors, 85 kW each (170 kW total) ZEBRA® (nickel sodium chloride), three modules, 32 kW (95 kW total), 53 kWh Demonstration in Oakland, CA

17 17 NFCBP Accomplishments Several technical advances for fuel cell technology achieved Fuel-cell powerplant surpassed 7,000 hours on bus in revenue service with the original cell stacks and no cell replacement Fuel cell warranties exceeding 10,000 hours, up from 4,000 hours in 2006 Component projects completed successfully including Hybrid Fuel Cell Power Converter and Integrated Auxiliary Module BDC

18 18 TIGGER Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction (TIGGER) Funding directly to public transit agencies to implement strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions or reduce energy usage from their operations TIGGER I Initiated within the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 at $100 Million TIGGER II executed through the Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act 2010 (Pub. L. 111-68) at $75 million

19 19 TIGGER I: Project Selections Over 560 project proposals received totaling $2.0 Billion 43 projects totaling $100 Million announced October 2009 Multiple technologies and strategies for energy and greenhouse gas emissions reduction Projects vary in cost and complexity Geographically-diverse with projects in 27 U.S. states

20 20 TIGGER I : Examples of Selected Projects Purchase of new clean & efficient transit vehicles Transit facilities efficiency improvements Geothermal heating and cooling Low energy lighting Passive solar water heating Roof mounted PV solar and turbine electric power Rail wayside energy storage system with flywheel technology Idle reduction technology for buses PV Shade structures for bus fleet

21 21 TIGGER II Program Additional $75M appropriated for FY 2010 Significant technologies employed in project awards include: Biomethane fueled 400kW SOFC Fuel Cell Powerplant PEM Electrolyzer for on-site hydrogen production Solar and wind based electric power generation Geothermal heating & cooling for transit terminals Hybrid-electric buses to replace older diesel buses Fast-charging electric buses and charging stations Locomotive engine idle reduction systems UTC 400 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Plant ZTR SmartStart Locomotive Idle Reduction Solar Bus Canopy Designline EcoSaver IV Turbine-Electric Bus Proterra EcoRide 35 with FastFill Charging Station Solar Power Plant

22 22 Benefit of Alternative Fuels & Technology 2007 study quantified and compared the emissions and fuel consumption characteristics of alternatively fueled (CNG, LNG, and Biodiesel), and diesel hybrid-electric buses Study predicted the overall emissions and fuel benefits at an increased level of market penetration of each technology and compared to those of the forecasted 2009 bus fleet Diesel-electric hybrid appears to offer the best overall environmental benefits and is the only technology to result in a reduction in fossil fuel consumption FTA-WV-26-7003-07.2

23 23 Hydraulic Hybrid Bus Development BUSolutions Project in Troy, MI CALSTART Shuttle Bus Demonstration at RTA in Riverside, CA Future Minneapolis, MN Demonstration Future El Paso, TX Demonstration Several Development Efforts Underway Simultaneously Leading to Potential for Viable Deployments The Goal is to Provide a Hydraulic Hybrid Bus with Better Fuel Economy and Lower Emissions at a Lower Life Cycle Cost than Todays Basic Diesel Bus

24 24 Optimized Design Employed Virtual Prototyping or efficient design Full bus 15% lighter Optimized all aluminum structure - 30% lighter Series Hydraulic Hybrid Partner is Parker Hannifin 70% recovery of braking energy 45% improvement in fuel economy and emissions BUSolutions Key Innovations

25 25 CALSTART Hydraulic Hybrid Shuttle Bus CALSTART is sponsoring the development of hydraulic hybrid shuttle bus for demonstration in Riverside, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and El Paso, TX Combined funding CALSTART/FTA and SCAQMD > $1.0 Million Shuttle Bus is based on a Ford cutaway chassis bus EATON Hydraulic Launch Assist (HLA) upfitted by a third party EATON HLA is a parallel hybrid system that requires limited changes to base vehicle EATON system already demonstrated on a shuttle for U.S. Army returning >25% fuel economy improvement on the EPA city cycle Eaton HLA®System EATON HLA Shuttle Bus

26 26 Total Life Cycle Cost Comparisons Data source: Transit Bus Life Cycle Cost and Year 2007 Emissions Estimation (FTA-WV-26-004.2007.1.) Delta cost estimates made for Hybrid Hydraulic with similar assumptions. 45% fuel economy improvement used compared to 19% reported for DEH Total Life Cycle Cost by Bus Type Hybrid Hydraulic has the lowest Total Life Cycle Cost A basic diesel bus is 4% more A Hybrid Electric is 39% more Main drivers of lower cost: Lower purchase price No expensive battery replacement Superior fuel economy Even lower emissions than hybrid- electric

27 27 Proterra Bus Development under the ARRA Program Proterra Ecoliner used by Foothill Transit Foothill Transit, Los Angeles, CA Three Fast Charge Battery electric buses Operational since September 2010 Recharge in 10 minutes 30 mile range with recharge stations at each end of the route

28 28 Proterra Bus Design Flexible design layout Configurable for several variations of electric-drive modes Modes include: Hydrogen fuel cell Plug-in battery electric Fast charge battery electric Diesel electric hybrid Proterra Inductive Fast Charging Proterra Fuel Cell Stacks Proterra Battery Pack

29 29 Advanced Small Transit Vehicle Need for an improved small vehicle to support rural/small urban transit markets Current small vehicles Adapted Commercial Vehicles Harsh ride & limited to good roads Crude wheel-chair lifts Inflexible Seating Future Small Transit Vehicle Low-floor wheelchair friendly Reconfigurable seating Compact powertrain Traction Control Adjustable Ground Clearance

30 30 Ride Solutions Bus Small heavy-duty low-floor bus designed by BreviBus Key Innovations Transverse Engine/Transmission adapted from Class 8 Truck mounted behind rear axle H-drive translates transmission output 270 degrees into rear axle Allows 25 seated passengers in only a 26-foot long bus Foldaway seats allow conversion to 5 wheelchair positions for paratransit or 6 stretchers for emergency evacuation Built-in Wheelchair Ramp

31 31 Urban MAGLEV In 1999, FTA announced the Urban Maglev Project (UMP) with the objectives of: Developing a base of knowledge about Urban MAGLEV low speed technology Pursue full system development and demonstration Enhance one or more of critical maglev subsystems using advanced technologies Develop functional specifications Critical Urban MAGLEV Technology Areas Levitation Propulsion Power Supply & Delivery Communication & Control Guideway design Vehicle Design Artistic rendering of Urban MAGLEV at Old Dominion University in Virgina

32 32 Urban MAGLEV Design Targets: Speeds up to 45 m/s (162 km/h, 101 mph) Acceleration and braking up to 2 m/s2 (4.4 mph/s) Headways as short as 4 seconds Capacity of 12,000 passengers per hour Horizontal turn radii of 18.3 m (60) and vertical radius of 300 m (984) Target cost of $20 million/mile including vehicles Less noise and energy than current transit

33 33 MAGLEV Energy Efficiency Comparison of Energy Demand by Passenger Mode Travel Mode Energy Intensity (BTU/pass-mi) M 3 Urban MAGLEV1180 AMTRAK2902 Commuter Rail2759 Transit Bus4775 Automobile5669 MAGLEV eliminates traditional rolling resistance Primary energy loss is from air- resistance. Aerodynamic losses mitigated by limiting speeds to 100 mph (162 kph) one-half the energy consumption of passenger rail systems one-quarter the energy consumption of a transit bus or passenger car

34 34 Conclusions The ever increasing challenges of energy cost and emissions will continue to drive the search for effective alternative fuel sources for U.S. transit vehicles Transit is prime for demonstrating green vehicle technologies U.S. Transit has a long successful history with developing and demonstrating green vehicle technologies The FTA has a robust diversified portfolio of green technology projects

35 35 Thank You Walter Kulyk, P.E. Director, Office of Mobility Innovation Federal Transit Administration 1200 New Jersey Avenue S.E., Room E43-302 Washington, DC 20590 202-366-4995

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