2I. Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) Rosa Parks took a stand against segregation by refusing to move to the back of the busRosa Parks is known as the “Mother of the Civil Rights Movement.”
3I. Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)… In response, supporters formed the Montgomery Improvement Association1. Appointed Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. to serve as President2. Started a bus boycott3. Goal was to use economic pressure“Remember we are fighting for a cause. Do not ride a bus today.” This was one of the posters encouraging the boycott that policemen removed from the bus stops.
5I. Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)… C. They walked, took taxis, & organized carpoolsMontgomery citizens walk to work during the bus boycott.
6I. Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)… D. Boycott ended when Supreme Court ruled that segregation on public buses was unconstitutional (1956)Picture of Rosa Parks sitting at the front of the bus after the success of the boycott.
7Integrated bus suggestions - list made after the Supreme Court ruled that buses should be integrated For your help and convenience, the following suggestions are made. Will you read, study and memorize them so that our non-violent determination may not be endangered.Pray for guidance and commit yourself to complete non-violence in word and actions as you enter the bus.If cursed, do not curse back. If pushed, do not push back. If struck, do not strike back, but evidence love and goodwill at all times.9. If you feel you cannot take it, walk for another week or two. We have confidence in our people.
8II. Martin Luther King, Jr. King’s organizational and speaking skills enabled him to become the leader of the Civil Rights MovementKing was only 26 years old when he assisted with the bus boycott. In 1957, at the age of 27, he founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization that united black churches against segregation.
9II. Martin Luther King, Jr…. He encouraged people to use nonviolent resistance and to practice civil disobedience“I conclude that this award which I receive on behalf of that movement is a profound recognition that nonviolence is the answer to the crucial political and moral question of our time -- the need for man to overcome oppression and violence without resorting to violence and oppression.Civilization and violence are antithetical concepts. Negroes of the United States, following the people of India, have demonstrated that nonviolence is not sterile passivity, but a powerful moral force which makes for social transformation. Sooner or later all the people of the world will have to discover a way to live together in peace, and thereby transform this pending cosmic elegy into a creative psalm of brotherhood.If this is to be achieved, man must evolve for all human conflict a method which rejects revenge, aggression and retaliation. The foundation of such a method is love.”-Martin Luther King, Jr., Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Stockholm, Sweden, December 11, 1964
10II. Martin Luther King Jr.… C. Inspired by King, college students formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)1. Practiced civil disobedience by holding sit-ins, marches, protests, & demonstrations2. Adopted the slogan “jail not bail”
12During the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Martin Luther King addressed a meeting saying: “Go into the situations that we confront with a great deal of dignity, sanity, and reasonableness.” What did he mean by this? If people hadn’t acted with “dignity, sanity, and reasonableness,” what might have been the result?
13Robert Allen said: “For all their bravado, for all their racial epithets… standing up to them with dignity and courage made them fearful.” Who is Robert Allen talking about, and why do you think “standing up to them” in this way made them fearful?
14Gandhi wrote, “the hardest metal yields to sufficient heat Gandhi wrote, “the hardest metal yields to sufficient heat. Even so must the hardest heart melt before the sufficiency of the heat of nonviolence, and there is no limit to the capacity of nonviolence to generate heat.” How do you think nonviolence generates “heat?” What does Gandhi mean by this?
15The purpose of the Montgomery Bus Boycott was to… Punish the white bus driversChange the bus routes so they picked up A.A.Use political pressure to segregate the busesUse economic pressure to integrate the buses
16King’s strategy to achieve civil rights was to promote… Nonviolent resistanceHarassmentBlack powerSeparation of the races
17Which of the following is TRUE about SNCC? Formed during the bus boycottConsisted of black & white college studentsUsed violent tacticsDid not follow King’s ideas
18During the sit-ins… Protestors used violent tactics Police arrested the white peopleBlack & white students sat quietly at the countersKing gave the students daily directions
19An example of civil disobedience would be… Running a red lightAttacking someone who robbed youExpressing concern about a law by writing a letter to CongressRefusing to pay taxes as a way to protest a war