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2 A. D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES. A "Policy" is a predetermined course of action which is established to provide a guide toward accepted business strategies and objectives. In other words, it is a direct link between an organization's "Vision" and their day-to-day operations. Policies identify the key activities and provide a general strategy to decision-makers on how to handle issues as they arise. This is accomplished by providing the reader with limits and a choice of alternatives that can be used to "guide" their decision making process as they attempt to overcome problems.

3 A. D ISTINGUISH BETWEEN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES. The ultimate goal of every procedure is to provide the reader with a clear and easily understood plan of action required to carry out or implement a policy. A well written procedure will also help eliminate common misunderstandings by identifying job responsibilities and establishing boundaries for the job holders. Good procedures actually allow managers to control events in advance and prevent the organization (and employees) from making costly mistakes. You can think of a procedure as a road map where the trip details are highlighted in order to prevent a person from getting lost or "wandering" off an acceptable path identified by the company's management team.

4 T HE MAJOR DIFFERENCES BETWEEN POLICIES & PROCEDURES ARE IDENTIFIED BELOW : Are general in nature Identify company rules Explain why they exist Tells when the rule applies Describes who it covers Shows how the rule is enforcement Describes the consequences Are normally described using simple sentences & paragraphs Identify specific actions Explain when to take actions Describes alternatives Shows emergency procedures Includes warning & cautions Gives examples Shows how to complete forms Are normally written using an outline format Policies:Procedures:

5 B. D ISCUSS THE NEED FOR COMPANY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES. Policies & procedures are required when there is a need for consistency in your day-to-day operational activities. Policies and procedures also provide clarity to the reader when dealing with accountability issues or activities that are of critical importance to the company, such as, health & safety, legal liabilities, regulatory requirements or issues that have serious consequences.

6 C. D ESCRIBE THE IMPACT OF INEFFECTIVE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES. And if your organization already has established Policies & Procedures how can you determine if they are meeting your needs? A few "Critical" signs that your policies and procedures need to be reviewed and updated would include an increase in the number of accidents, higher failure rates or costly overruns. The workforce can also provide important clues that your company's policies and procedures need to be reviewed. Employees may also be demonstrating inconsistency in their job performance and there may be an increase in the workforce's stress levels. Finally, your customers may provide additional clues in the form of increasing complaints.

7 D. E XPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF UNDERSTANDING COMPANY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES. From an employee perspective the guidelines provided in policies and procedures allow workers to perform their jobs with respect and dignity. Polices provide guidance on how to handle issues properly as well as clearly identifying their job constrains. The organization benefits by allowing managers the freedom to concentrate on strategic issues because policies and procedures are in place to guide the normal-day-to-day operations.

8 S TUDENTS A CTIVITY : e. Identify company resources that can be accessed for policies and procedures. Sites provide ideas f. Demonstrate how to analyze company resources to ascertain policies and procedures. In small groups, students should review and compare the different companies policies/procedures. Each group should then record the policies and procedures that it would want employees to follow in its own business. Or - Using the student handbook, analyze the policies to determine how they were developed, what types of activities and procedures are affected, and the students perception of the clarity and effectiveness of the policies.


10 A. D EFINE THE FOLLOWING TERMS : MANAGEMENT, PLANNING, ORGANIZING, STAFFING, DIRECTING, AND CONTROLLING. Management: the process of accomplishing the goals of an organization through the effective use of people and other resources. Emerging trends in management include assertions that leading is different than managing, and that the nature of how the four functions is carried out must change to accommodate a "new paradigm" in management.

11 A. D EFINE THE FOLLOWING TERMS : MANAGEMENT, PLANNING, ORGANIZING, STAFFING, DIRECTING, AND CONTROLLING. planning: determine objectives in advance and the methods to achieve them organizing: establish a structure of authority for all work staffing: recruit, hire and train workers; maintain favorable working conditions directing: make decisions, issue orders and directives coordinating: interrelate all sectors of the organization

12 B. E XPLAIN THE ROLE OF MANAGERS IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS. Managers direct the activities of other people in the organization Management is both art and science. It is the art of making people more effective than they would have been without you. The science is in how you do that. A manager wears many hats. Not only is a manager a team leader, but he or she is also a planner, organizer, cheerleader, coach, problem solver, and decision maker all rolled into one. And these are just a few of a manager's roles. In his classic book, The Nature of Managerial Work, Henry Mintzberg describes a set of ten roles that a manager fills. These roles fall into three categories: Interpersonal: This role involves human interaction. Informational: This role involves the sharing and analyzing of information. Decisional: This role involves decision making.


14 C. D ESCRIBE THE CATEGORIES OF RESOURCES MANAGED BY BUSINESSES. Natural resources are raw materials produced by nature. Many natural resources are nonrenewable (oil, coal, gems). Renewable resources are trees, wind, water, crops, and plants. Human resources are the people who contribute physical and mental energy to the production process. Capital resources are the tools, equipment, and buildings that are used to produce goods and services.


16 Top Level of Management - Administrative level It consists of board of directors, chief executive or managing director. The top management is the ultimate source of authority and it manages goals and policies for an enterprise. It devotes more time on planning and coordinating functions. The role of the top management can be summarized as follows - Top management lays down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise. It issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules etc. It prepares strategic plans & policies for the enterprise. It appoints the executive for middle level i.e. departmental managers. It controls & coordinates the activities of all the departments. It is also responsible for maintaining a contact with the outside world. It provides guidance and direction. The top management is also responsible towards the shareholders for the performance of the enterprise.

17 D. E XPLAIN THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF EACH LEVEL OF MANAGEMENT. Middle Level of Management The branch managers and departmental managers constitute middle level. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. In small organization, there is only one layer of middle level of management but in big enterprises, there may be senior and junior middle level management. Their role can be emphasized as - They execute the plans of the organization in accordance with the policies and directives of the top management. They make plans for the sub-units of the organization. They participate in employment & training of lower level management. They interpret and explain policies from top level management to lower level. They are responsible for coordinating the activities within the division or department. It also sends important reports and other important data to top level management. They evaluate performance of junior managers. They are also responsible for inspiring lower level managers towards better performance.

18 D. E XPLAIN THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF EACH LEVEL OF MANAGEMENT. Lower Level of Management - Supervisory / Operative / First-line managers Lower level is also known as supervisory / operative level of management. It consists of supervisors, foreman, section officers, superintendent etc. According to R.C. Davis, Supervisory management refers to those executives whose work has to be largely with personal oversight and direction of operative employees. In other words, they are concerned with direction and controlling function of management. Their activities include - Assigning of jobs and tasks to various workers. They guide and instruct workers for day to day activities. They are responsible for the quality as well as quantity of production. They are also entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining good relation in the organization. They communicate workers problems, suggestions, and recommendatory appeals etc to the higher level and higher level goals and objectives to the workers. They help to solve the grievances of the workers. They supervise & guide the sub-ordinates. They are responsible for providing training to the workers. They arrange necessary materials, machines, tools etc for getting the things done. They prepare periodical reports about the performance of the workers. They ensure discipline in the enterprise. They motivate workers. They are the image builders of the enterprise because they are in direct contact with the workers.

19 S TUDENT A CTIVITY : e. Identify management functions. Workbook: page 95, Questions 1-17 and page 96 Questions 1-8 f. Describe the purposes of management functions. Review the following sites: and-Organizations.topicArticleId-8944,articleId html and-Organizations.topicArticleId-8944,articleId html


21 A. E XPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING TO BUSINESS. A plan is a blueprint for goal achievement that specifies the necessary resource allocations, schedules, tasks, and other actions. A goal is a desired future state that the organization attempts to realize. Goals are important because an organization exists for a purpose, and goals define and state that purpose. Goals specify future ends; plans specify today's means. The word planning incorporates both ideas: It means determining the organization's goals and defining the means for achieving them. Planning allows managers the opportunity to adjust to the environment instead of merely reacting to it. Planning increases the possibility of survival in business by actively anticipating and managing the risks that may occur in the future. In short, planning is preparing for tomorrow, today. It's the activity that allows managers to determine what they want and how they will achieve it.

22 B. D ESCRIBE A PLANNING PROCESS. Establishment of objectives Planning starts with the setting of goals and objectives to be achieved. Objectives provide a rationale for undertaking various activities as well as indicate direction of efforts. Moreover objectives focus the attention of managers on the end results to be achieved. Hence objectives should be practical, acceptable, workable and achievable. Establishment of Planning Premises Planning premises are the assumptions about the lively shape of events in future. They serve as a basis of planning. Planning premises may be internal or external. Internal includes capital investment policy, management labor relations, philosophy of management, etc. Whereas external includes socio- economic, political and economical changes. Internal premises are controllable whereas external are non- controllable. Choice of alternative course of action When forecast are available and premises are established, a number of alternative course of actions have to be considered. For this purpose, each and every alternative will be evaluated by weighing its pros and cons in the light of resources available and requirements of the organization. Formulation of derivative plans Derivative plans are the sub plans or secondary plans which help in the achievement of main plan. These detail plans include policies, procedures, rules, programmers, budgets, schedules, etc. For example, if profit maximization is the main aim of the enterprise, derivative plans will include sales maximization, production maximization, and cost minimization. Securing Co-operation After the plans have been determined, it is necessary rather advisable to take subordinates or those who have to implement these plans into confidence. Follow up/Appraisal of plans After choosing a particular course of action, it is put into action. The follow up must go side by side the implementation of plans so that in the light of observations made, future plans can be made more realistic.

23 C. D ISCUSS BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE PLANNING ( E. G., TROUBLE MAKING ACCURATE FORECASTS, TIME AND COST FACTORS, INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL INFLEXIBILITIES, AND RAPID CHANGE ). (1) Corporate planning is not integrated into the total management system, (2) There is a lack of understanding of the different steps of planning process, (3) Management at different levels in the organization has not properly engaged in or contributed to planning activities, (4) Responsibility for planning is wrongly vested solely in the planning department, (5) Management expects that plans developed will be realized with little effort, (6) In starting formal planning, too much is attempted at once, (7) Management fails to operate by the plan, (8) Management fails to grasp the overall planning process, (9) Financial projections are confused with planning, (10) Inadequate inputs are used in planning.

24 D. E XPLAIN CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH EFFECTIVE PLANNING ( E. G., SIMPLICITY, FLEXIBILITY, LINKED TO LONG - TERM OBJECTIVES, CONSISTENCY, FEASIBILITY, DIRECTION FOR ACTION ). (1) Develop accurate forecasts (2) Gain acceptance for the plan (3) Make sure the plan is sound (4) Assign responsibility for planning (5) Be objective (6) Keep the plan flexible (7) Revise your long- term plan every year (8) Make sure that the plan fits the situation

25 E. E XPLAIN WHY PLANNING IS GENERALLY CONSIDERED THE FIRST, OR PRIMARY, MANAGEMENT FUNCTION. It is the basic management function which includes formulation of one or more detailed plans to achieve optimum balance of needs or demands with the available resources.

26 S TUDENT A CTIVITY : f. Distinguish among strategic, tactical, contingency, and managerial planning. Use the following site: Plans.topicArticleId-8944,articleId-8871.html Plans.topicArticleId-8944,articleId-8871.html


28 A. E XPLAIN BENEFITS OF TAKING RESPONSIBILITY FOR DECISIONS AND ACTIONS. Article Leading with responsibility states: The definition of responsibility, as used in this article, rests on the assumption that individuals have the capacity to choose between alternatives. Taking responsibility means being accountable for one's choices, not depending on others to establish controls for one's behaviors. Responsibility can only reside in the individual and cannot be disclaimed or diminished through delegation or shared duties. Responsibility means not placing blame on others and proactively taking ownership to resolve problems in the interest of serving others above self.

29 B. D ESCRIBE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF FAILING TO ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR DECISIONS AND ACTIONS. Overly dependent on others for recognition, approval, affirmation and acceptance. Chronically hostile, angry or depressed over how unfairly you have been or are being treated. Fearful about ever taking a risk or making a decision. Overwhelmed by disabling fears. Unsuccessful at the enterprises you take on in life. Unsuccessful in personal relationships. Emotionally or physically unhealthy. Addicted to unhealthy substances, such as the abuse of alcohol, drugs, food or unhealthy behavior such as excessive gambling, shopping, sex, smoking, work, etc. Over responsible and guilt ridden in your need to rescue and enable others in your life. Unable to develop trust or to feel secure with others. Resistant to vulnerability.

30 C. I DENTIFY BEHAVIORS AND TRAITS NEEDED TO ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR DECISIONS AND ACTIONS. Seek out and to accept help for yourself. Be open to new ideas or concepts about life and the human condition. Refute irrational beliefs and overcome fears. Affirm yourself positively. Recognize that you are the sole determinant of the choices you make. Recognize that you choose your responses to the people, actions and events in your life. Let go of anger, fear, blame, mistrust and insecurity. Take risks and to become vulnerable to change and growth in your life. Take off the masks of behavior characteristics behind which you hide low self-esteem. Reorganize your priorities and goals. Realize that you are the party in charge of the direction your life takes.

31 D. I DENTIFY STEPS IN ACCEPTING RESPONSIBILITY FOR DECISIONS AND ACTIONS. Realize that you cannot place the blame on others for the choices you make. Be fair in your dealings. Understanding that it's ok to make mistakes. No one will think less of you. On the contrary you will earn the respect of others for admitting your errors. Seek to improve your self-esteem When your self-esteem is high, your self-perception and self-worth is so peaked that there's no need to pretend to be something you're not. There's no more need to feel sorry for yourself. There are no more feelings of inferiority. Admitting your poor judgment in a situation and taking responsibility comes easily.self-esteem Build your self-confidence When you are confident in your abilities, you won't become defensive when you make a mistake. Owning your contribution to a situation and taking responsibility becomes natural.self-confidence Giving of yourself in service to others, teachers empathy and compassion, characteristics that helps one to overcome self-centeredness. Learn ways to let go of fear. Fear can create insecurities. Acceptance of who you are. Learn to love yourself unconditionally and accept who you are. Learn how to see things objectively without bias and prejudice. Let go of bigotry. Let go of feelings of victimization. Learn to see yourself as a victor and not a victim. Develop your spiritual life. By adding a spiritual dimension to your life, it can help to bring more self-awareness. Take your degree of success to a higher to level.

32 S TUDENT A CTIVITY : e. Demonstrate processes used to take responsibility for decisions and actions. Individually, students should write about someone who has not taken responsibility for her/his decisions and actions. This person might be a celebrity, a politician, a family friend, etc. Each student should explain that persons decisions and actions and the negative consequences of failing to accept responsibility for what s/he did. Each student should also identify possible reasons for the persons lack of responsibility, discuss steps that the person could have taken to take responsibility for his/her actions, and explain how taking responsibility for these decisions and actions could have improved the persons situation. When finished, students should share their work with the class. Use the following sites: Actions&id= Actions&id= responsibility/ responsibility/ Under What are the steps in accepting personal responsibility? complete Step 2.


34 A. D ISCUSS INFORMATION COMMONLY FOUND IN AN ORGANIZATION S RULES OF CONDUCT. A code of conduct is a set of rules or a protocol that explains how people should conduct themselves. A code of conduct often consists of things to do in certain situations and requires certain behaviors. A code of conduct can include any responsibilities or practices that the organization feels necessary for its mission. Codes of conduct can also include commands for behavior, such as the code of conduct for the software maker Ubuntu, which includes "Be considerate" and "Be respectful" as part of its code. A code of conduct is a company's voluntary belief in a set of morals, standards and proper behavior for its operations, enforced by the business's leaders. Codes of conduct usually fall in line with laws and general social mores against corruption.

35 B. D ESCRIBE THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG ETHICS, RESPECT, AND RULES OF CONDUCT. Ethics – refers to standards of moral conduct that individuals and groups set for themselves, defining what behavior they value as right or wrong. Respect - esteem for or a sense of the worth or excellence of a person, a personal quality or ability, or something considered as a manifestation of a personal quality or ability ( A code of conduct can also act as a way of presenting an organization's or company's philosophy or ethical approach to the world; for example, an objective or obligation that the organization pursues in its activities.

36 C. D ISCUSS INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL BENEFITS OF FOLLOWING RULES OF CONDUCT. Codes of conduct are beneficial to ensure that businesses have covered all the bases by making the behavioral expectations known, both internally and externally. A code of conduct benefits the business itself, all members of a business, their clients and usually society as a whole… A company with a higher ethical standard tends to have a better public perception, and employees may be more likely to follow management's ethical guidelines themselves. To see the benefits of a code of conduct, management must ensure employees follow company ethical standards. Ensuring the rest of a company follows a code of conduct starts from the top.

37 D. E XPLAIN POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES FOR VIOLATING RULES OF CONDUCT. Violation of such codes indicates that an employee's behavior is not consistent with what the company's expectations are, and can result in consequences. Being charged with violating ethical codes of conduct can result in different types of consequences that vary in severity, depending on the type of violation. Violation consequences may range from an employee getting written up to termination. Some types of violations are simply not tolerated by businesses, such as embezzlement.

38 S TUDENT A CTIVITY : e. Demonstrate techniques to follow rules of conduct. Students should work individually or in small groups to obtain and review rules of conduct from local businesses. (These rules of conduct may be written or unwritten.) After doing so, each student or group should develop an informative brochure about the chosen businesss rules of conduct for new employees. The brochure should contain a summary of the rules of conduct, individual and organizational benefits of obeying these rules, consequences of violations, and tips/suggestions for following the rules on a consistent basis. Suggestions: Student Handbook School District website Your employment place Test next class ;-)


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