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Chapter7. System Organization

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1 Chapter7. System Organization

2 System Organization - How computers and their major components are interconnected and managed at the system level. Communication Methods Basic concepts Intrasystem communication : within a single computer, primarily buses parallel Intersystem communication : electrical cables and optical fibers. serial computer network.

3 Buses : Physical links among the components as well as the controlling mechanism
- A single system bus handles all intrasystem communication At any time, only two units can communicate with each other. CPU : a bus master M : a bus slave I/O devices : normally a bus slave, but can be a bus master via IO processor System bus : address, data, and control lines The characteristics of system bus closely matches those of its host CPU.

4 System bus : High-speed data transfer between CPU and M.
Most IO device are slower than CPU and M. IO controllers that perform series-to-parallel and parallel-to-series format conversions. Standardized IO bus : SCSI ( Small Computer System Interface )

5 Long-distance communication
Whereas intrasystem communication is serial by word, intersystem communication is serial by bit due to the difficulty of synchronizing data bits sent in parallel over long distances. A sequence of many bits called a message is transmitted at one time. When the pulses representing digital signal 0 and 1 are transmitted over long distances, the pulses may become unrecognizable due to the distortion caused by noise. More cost-effective to embed the data in analog signals for average quality of transmission medium.

6 Computer networks : Digital communication networks designed to link many independent computers to permit sharing of computing resources. Local area network (LAN) : private data transmission links, Ethernet Wide area network (WAN) Techniques for sharing the communication links – Circuit switching – Message switching : Use the intermediate servers to store messages and subsequently forward them. Efficient utilization of links – Packet switching : To solve the problem that the short messages can be delayed while longer messages are being transmitted, divide messages into packets of fixed length and format, and then transmit packets from long messages interspersed with packets from short messages. ATM ( asynchronous transfer mode ) combines voice and data communication using short packets that can be transmitted very fast.


8 The Internet : A worldwide packet-switched computer network descended from the ARPANET.
IMP ( Interface Message Processor ) TCP/IP ( Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol ) The Internet address is 4 bytes long more than 4 billion distinct addresses. An Internet packet is transmitted with a header containing its most recent source address and its final destination address, as well as a sequence number indicating its position in the original message. An Internet package can pass through dozens of servers before reaching the target server.

9 Interconnection Structures

10 Bus Control Two key issues timing of transfers over the bus the process by which a unit gains access to the bus Synchronous communication : The bus interface circuits of both the source and destination units are synchronized. disadvantage : data-transfer rates are largely determined by the slowest unit in the system. Asynchronous communication : local and long distance communication. Each item is accompanied by a control signal that indicates its presence to the destination unit. The destination unit responds with another control signal to acknowledge. Data-transfer speed varies with the inherent speed of the communication devices, at the cost of more complex control circuitry.

11 Bus interfacing : A bus line represents a signal path with potentially very large fan-in and fan-out bus driver and bus receiver

12 Two big advantages of tristate logic circuits
• The greatly increase the fan-in and fan-out limits of bus lines, permitting very large numbers of devices to be attached to the same line. • They support bidirectional transmission over the bus by allowing the same bus connection to serve as an input port and as an output port at different times.

13 Bus arbitration : a selection mechanism to decide among competing requests to the bus
at the same time. → Daisy – chaining, polling, and independent request. • Daisy-Chaining – When the first unit receives the bus grant signal, it blocks further propagation. The unit closest to the bus-control unit has the highest priority. Selection priority is determined by the order in which the units are linked by the Bus Grant lines. → susceptible to failure. – Very few control lines and a simple fixed arbitration algorithm. A unit’s priority cannot be changed under program control. – Can be used with unlimited number of bus units.

14 • Polling method

15 – The Bus Grant line is replaced by poll count line.
– Each unit compares a sequence of numbers on the poll-count lines to a unique address assigned to that unit. – The priority of a bus unit is determined by the position of it’s address in the polling sequence. This sequence can be programmed, hence priority can be changed under software control. – A failure in one unit needs not affect the other units. – Require more control lines ( K poll-count lines instead of one BUS GRANT line ) – The number of units is limited by the addressing capability of the poll-count lines.

16 • Independent requesting
– Priority is determined by the bus-control unit. → can respond very fast to request for bus access – To control n units, require 2n BUS REQUEST and BUS GRANT lines, compared 2 lines for Daisy Chaining and log2n lines for Polling.

17 7.2. IO and System Control IO control methods: depending on how CPU is involved in I/O execution. programmed IO : IO operations are completely controlled by CPU. – require little or no special hardware, but causes CPU to spend a lot of time for relatively trivial IO-related functions, such as testing the status of IO devices. DMA ( Direct Memory Access ) control : IO device generates memory addresses and transfer data to or from the bus connecting it to M without CPU intervention. The CPU and IO controller interact only when CPU must yield control of the memory bus to the IO controller temporarily in response to requests from the latter. An interrupt request causes CPU to switch programs by saving its previous program state and transferring control to a new interrupt-handling program. IO processor has direct access to main memory, can interrupt CPU, and can also execute IO programs directly without recourse to CPU.

18 Programmed IO : for small, low-speed computer systems
The IO device does not have direct access to M A data transfer from an IO device to M requires CPU to execute several instructions. IO addressing : The address lines of the system bus for memory locations can also be used to select IO devices. – memory-mapped IO : assign a part of main memory address to IO ports. An instruction that causes data to be fetched from or stored at address X automatically becomes an IO instruction if X is the address of IO port no special IO instruction

19 – IO-mapped IO : the memory and IO address are separate
A memory-referencing instruction is different from an IO instruction.

20 DMA and Interrupts The disadvantages of the programmed IO – The speed with which the CPU can test and service IO devices limits IO data-transfer rates. First, a delay occurs while an IO device needing service waits to be tested by the CPU. If there are many IO devices in the system, each device may be tested infrequently. Second, programmed IO transmits data through the CPU rather than allowing it to be passed directly from main memory to the IO device, and vice versa. – The time that the CPU spends testing IO device status and executing IO data transfers can often be better spent on other tasks.

21 In DMA, DMA REQUEST and INTERRUPT REQUEST connect IO devices to
CPU, cause CPU to suspend its current activities at appropriate breakpoints and attend to DMA or interrupt request. no need for CPU to execute routine testing. A DMA request by an IO device only requires CPU to grant control of the memory bus to the requesting device at the end of any transactions involving the use of this bus. Interrupt request asks CPU to begin executing an interrupt service program, in addition to a request for bus control, similar to a subroutine call.

22 DMA

23 DMA controller contains a data buffer register IODR, an address register IOAR, and a data counter register DC, to transfer data to or from contiguous region of memory. The DMA controller sends an interrupt to CPU to signal the end of IO data transfer. DMA block transfer : transfer a sequence of arbitrary length in a single burst. The fastest IO data-transfer rates, but CPU may be inactive for relatively long periods by tying up the system bus. Cycle stealing method : allows the DMA controller to use the system bus to transfer one data word, after which it must return control of the bus to CPU. reduced IO transfer rate, also reduced interference by DMA controller. Transparent DMA : bus cycles are stolen only when CPU is not actually using the bus.

24 Process of DMA transfers
1.The CPU executes two IO instructions, which load the DMA registers IOAR and DC with their initial values. IOAR should contain the base address of the memory region to be used in the data transfer. DC should contain the number of words to be transferred to or from that region. 2.When the DMA controller is ready to transmit or receive data, it activates the DMA REQUEST line to the CPU. The CPU waits for the next DMA breakpoint. It then relinquishes control of the data and address lines and activates DMA ACKNOWLEDGE. Note that DMA REQUEST and DMA ACKNOWLEDGE are essentially BUS REQUEST and BUS GRANT lines for control of the system bus. Simultaneous DMA requests from several DMA controllers are resolved by one of the bus-priority control techniques discussed earlier. 3.The DMA controller now transfers data directly to or from main memory. After a word is transferred, IOAR and DC are updated. 4.If DC has not yet reached zero but the IO device is not ready to send or receive the next batch of data, the DMA controller releases the system bus to the CPU by deactivating the DMA REQUEST line. The CPU responds by deactivating DMA ACKNOWLEDGE and resuming control of the system bus. 5.If DC is decremented to zero, the DMA controller again relinquishes control of the system bus; it may also send an interrupt request signal to the CPU. The CPU responds by halting the IO device or by initiating a new DMA transfer.

25 Interrupts : the primary means by which IO devices obtain the services of CPU.
Interrupts significantly improve a computer’s IO performance by giving IO devices direct and rapid access to CPU and by freeing CPU from the need to check the status of its IO devices. The basic interrupt method is to activate INTERRUPT REQUEST that connects the interrupt source to CPU. The process of interrupt request 1.The CPU identifies the source of the interrupt, for example, by polling IO devices. 2.The CPU obtains the memory address of the required interrupt handler. This address can be provided by the interrupting device along with its interrupt request. 3.The program counter PC and other CPU status information are saved as in a subroutine call. 4.The PC is loaded with the address of the interrupt handler. Execution proceeds until a return instruction is encountered, which transfers control back to the interrupted program

26 Interrupt selection : similar to bus arbitration process.

27 Vectored interrupts : The interrupting device supplies CPU with the starting address or interrupt vector of the interrupt-handling program to get the most flexible response.



30 7.2.3. IO Processors : execute most IO instructions
IO instruction type : READ a block of n words from device X to memory region Y IOP is provided with direct access to M and so can control the memory bus when CPU does not require that bus.

31 Three types of instructions executed by IOP
• Data-transfer instructions. These include input (read), output (write ), and sense (read status). They cause the number of bytes in the data count field to be transferred between the specified memory region and the previously selected IO device. • Branch instructions. These cause the IOP to fetch the next CCW from the specified memory address rather than from the next sequential location. • IO device control instructions. These are transmitted to the IO device and specify functions peculiar to that device.

32 IOP organization : IOP and CPU share access to a common memory M via
IOP organization : IOP and CPU share access to a common memory M via the system bus

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