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The Bus Architecture of Embedded System ESE 566 Report 1 LeTian Gu.

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Presentation on theme: "The Bus Architecture of Embedded System ESE 566 Report 1 LeTian Gu."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Bus Architecture of Embedded System ESE 566 Report 1 LeTian Gu

2 CoreConnect Bus Architeture Fig.1 The CoreConnect bus architecture in a SOC

3 Processor Local Bus to interface between the processor cores and integrated bus controllers be developed for use in Core+ASIC and system-on-a-chip (SOC) designs providing a high bandwidth data path

4 PLB performances Decoupled address, read data, and write data buses Concurrent read and write transfers Address pipelining Ability to overlap the bus request grant protocol with an ongoing transfer

5 PLBs flexibility features: Support multiple masters and slaves Four priority levels for master requests Deadlock avoidance Master driven atomic operations Byte-enable capability A sequential burst protocol allowing byte, half-word, word and double-word burst transfers

6 CONTINUE Support for 16-, 32- and 64-byte line data transfers Read word address capability DMA support for buffered, fly-by transfers Guarded or unguarded memory transfers Architecture extendable to 256-bit data buses

7 PLB Transfer Protocol Example

8 Continue PLB transactions consist of multiphase address and data tenures A PLB transaction begins when a master drives its address and transfer qualifier signals and requests ownership of the bus during the request phase of the address tenure Once the PLB arbiter grants bus ownership the master's address and transfer qualifiers are presented to the slave devices during the transfer phase

9 On-Chip Peripheral Bus (OPB) Peripherals attach to OPB include serial ports, parallel ports, UARTs, GPIO, timers and other low-bandwidth devices OPB alleviate system performance bottlenecks by reducing capacitive loading on the PLB

10 CONTINUE synchronous 32-bit address,data buses support byte, half-word and word transfers A sequential address (burst) protocol Support for multiple OPB bus masters Bus parking for reduced-latency transfers

11 Device Control Register (DCR) Bus Transfer data between the CPUs general purpose registers and the DCR slave logics device control registers

12 Features of DCR bus 10-bit address bus and 32-bit data bus 2-cycle minimum read or write transfers Handshake supports clocked asynchronous transfers Slaves may be clocked either faster or slower than master Distributed multiplexer architecture

13 A clocking scheme up to 4 GHz clock skew and jitter becoming a higher percentage of the cycle time. power-supply fluctuations and cross coupling result larger die area diminishing device geometries result in less manufacturing control

14 High-level clock system

15 jitter reduction filtering the power supply of clock-tree drivers shielding of clock wires from signal coupling. to supply noise from logic switching low-pass RC filter show 5 times reduction in noise amplitude on the filtered supply

16 skew optimizer circuit

17 Continue main components are 47 adjustable delay buffers (DB) and a phase-detector (PD) network.(include 46 PD) test access port (TAP) control the delay adjustment against the primary PD skew is adjusted to within accumulation error of about 8 ps. In this particular condition, the preadjusted skew is about 64 ps

18 power saving in the interconnection Interconnect often dominate the power consumption On chip, an interconnect comprises a driver, a wire with total capacitance, and a receiver with capacitive load Off chip, a high-speed interconnect comprises a driver, an interconnect, which normally is a 50- transmission line, and a receiver with a termination resistor and an amplifier

19 A model of typical interconnection

20 power consumption and voltage swing in an interconnect One way to reduce the power consumption related to interconnect is to reduce the voltage swing used an amplifier at the receiver side is needed to restore the swing to its normal value optimum swing means at which the power consumption used to drive the wire balances the power consumption of the receiver

21 Total power versus input voltage swing Solid line: case 1. Dashed line: case 2. Upper curves a = 0:25 and lower a = 0:05.

22 Data for analysis analysis was held assuming CMOS technology with 0.18-um process and CMOS logical swings. fc=1GHz, Vdd = 1.3V, CL=10pf, Cw=1pf, represent data activity. 0.25 and 0.05 are used. Cw of 1pf corresponds to an internal wire of 5–10 mm.

23 Results of analysis The power consumption of the wire is 85uW and 0.42 mW at full swing for a =0.05 and a= 0.25 optimum voltage swings exists in a wide range of situations, and depends on operating frequency, data activities, and different cases for generating the reduced voltage Case1.optimum swings of the order of 100 to 400 mV power savings of the order of 10X Csae 2. optimum voltage swings of 60 to 120 mV savings are limited to 3X to 8X

24 Conclusions More devices will involve into interconnect Interconnect bus trace often dominate the power consumption resistant transmission line theory should be used in analysis in higher frequency robust interconnect architecture will efficiently realize complex system-on-a- chip design and component reuse

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