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Freedom in motion Current Trends: From Neighborhood Electric Vehicles to Plug-In Hybrids Mark E. Hairr, Research Program Director ATTRP/UT Chattanooga.

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Presentation on theme: "Freedom in motion Current Trends: From Neighborhood Electric Vehicles to Plug-In Hybrids Mark E. Hairr, Research Program Director ATTRP/UT Chattanooga."— Presentation transcript:

1 freedom in motion Current Trends: From Neighborhood Electric Vehicles to Plug-In Hybrids Mark E. Hairr, Research Program Director ATTRP/UT Chattanooga

2 freedom in motion The ATTRP is a program of applied research by the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga to develop and deploy transportation technologies that utilize clean and secure sources of energy.

3 In January 1969 Chattanooga was citied by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare as having the worst particulate air pollution of any city in the nation Worse than Los Angeles Worse than New York Worse then New Orleans

4 freedom in motion CHATTANOOGA TODAY

5 freedom in motion NEIGHBORHOOD ELECTRIC VEHICLES (NEVs)/ LOW SPEED VEHICLES (LSVs) Usually one- to four-passenger vehicles with rechargeable batteries and electric motors. Plugs in to a standard 110-volt outlet Usually one- to four-passenger vehicles with rechargeable batteries and electric motors. Plugs in to a standard 110-volt outlet Defined by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as having four wheels, weighing less than 2,500 pounds, with a top speed of 25 mph Defined by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as having four wheels, weighing less than 2,500 pounds, with a top speed of 25 mph About 40 states have legislation regarding LSVs limited to streets posted at 35/mph or lower About 40 states have legislation regarding LSVs limited to streets posted at 35/mph or lower Vehicle cost range = $6,000-$12,000 Vehicle cost range = $6,000-$12,000 Typically used in planned communities, universities, military bases, national parks, airports, etc. Typically used in planned communities, universities, military bases, national parks, airports, etc.

6 freedom in motion A MULTITUDE OF SMALL SCALE VEHICLES

7 freedom in motion HYBRID TRANSIT VEHICLES Combines an electric propulsion system with a power plant ICE, turbine or fuel cell stack Combines an electric propulsion system with a power plant ICE, turbine or fuel cell stack Benefits of electric drive system (acceleration, quieter, energy efficiency Benefits of electric drive system (acceleration, quieter, energy efficiency Eliminates limitations of pure battery-electric buses (shorter range, reduced power for steeper grades) Eliminates limitations of pure battery-electric buses (shorter range, reduced power for steeper grades) Batteries charged while bus in service and operating Batteries charged while bus in service and operating Balance of low emissions with required performance for transit operators Balance of low emissions with required performance for transit operators

8 freedom in motion HYBRID BUSES Series hybrid (engine decoupled from drive wheels, energy produced from engine converted electric power from generator which powers traction motors as well as recharging energy storage device) Can operate in all- electric modeSeries hybrid (engine decoupled from drive wheels, energy produced from engine converted electric power from generator which powers traction motors as well as recharging energy storage device) Can operate in all- electric mode Parallel hybrid (both combustion engine and electric motor have direct connection to transmission. Combustion engine used during higher, constant speeds and electric motor at stops and low speeds)Parallel hybrid (both combustion engine and electric motor have direct connection to transmission. Combustion engine used during higher, constant speeds and electric motor at stops and low speeds)

9 freedom in motion HYBRID BUSES

10 freedom in motion HYBRID ELECTRIC FUEL CELL BUS Consortium with University of Delaware, Ebus, Ballard Power Systems, EPRI, Air Liquide and Delaware Transit Corp. Funded by FTA Funded by FTA 22-foot hybrid electric bus 22-foot hybrid electric bus Fuel cell is 19kh (reduces costs, matches transit operating environment on campus shuttle) Fuel cell is 19kh (reduces costs, matches transit operating environment on campus shuttle) Can operate in battery-only mode for 40 miles Can operate in battery-only mode for 40 miles Project includes extensive data collection re:performance, efficiency, emissions, maintenance, etc. Project includes extensive data collection re:performance, efficiency, emissions, maintenance, etc.

11 freedom in motion HYBRID ELECTRIC FUEL CELL BUS

12 freedom in motion HYBRID BUSES Fuel cell drive Battery dominant hybrid-electric drive system Pure battery drive system Composite panel Bus-32 ft. long Gross Vehicle weight = 20,000 lbs. Seats 37 passengers

13 freedom in motion HYBRID BUSES The EV20h will be a series hybrid-electric 22-foot bus with a small 20 kWh battery that will be engine dominant. This vehicle will typically operate with the engine running and although not as quiet or clean as an electric or hybrid-electric bus with a larger battery, this vehicle typifies the type of hybrid-electric bus available in the United States. The EV20h will be a series hybrid-electric 22-foot bus with a small 20 kWh battery that will be engine dominant. This vehicle will typically operate with the engine running and although not as quiet or clean as an electric or hybrid-electric bus with a larger battery, this vehicle typifies the type of hybrid-electric bus available in the United States. The EV70h will be a hybrid-electric 22-foot bus with a 70 kWh battery that will be capable of operating for longer periods of time on electricity only. This vehicle could be driven to an area some distance from the garage and then operated on batteries for a longer period of time.The EV70h will be a hybrid-electric 22-foot bus with a 70 kWh battery that will be capable of operating for longer periods of time on electricity only. This vehicle could be driven to an area some distance from the garage and then operated on batteries for a longer period of time.

14 freedom in motion PROPOSED UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS INDUCTIVELY CHARGED ELECTRIC BUS Induces electrical energy into vehicle mounted pick-up unit.Induces electrical energy into vehicle mounted pick-up unit. Contact-less charging system. Contact-less charging system. No wear and tear due to friction. No wear and tear due to friction. Preliminary Technical Assessment: Route analysisRoute analysis Determine appropriate bus sizeDetermine appropriate bus size Clean power recommendationClean power recommendation

15 freedom in motion INDUCTIVE CHARGING SYSTEM GENOA, ITALY

16 freedom in motion INDUCTIVE CHARGING SYSTEM GENOA, ITALY

17 freedom in motion PLUG-IN HYBRIDS (PHEVs) Plug-in vehicle research began in 1970s Plug-in vehicle research began in 1970s Can be operated on electricity or internal combustion engine Can be operated on electricity or internal combustion engine Have larger batteries than typical hybrid vehicles Have larger batteries than typical hybrid vehicles All electric range of 20- to 60-miles All electric range of 20- to 60-miles Plug in to standard 110-volt outlet Plug in to standard 110-volt outlet Conversions of Toyota Prius, Development of Daimler-Chrysler Sprinter Vans, School Buses, other prototypes Conversions of Toyota Prius, Development of Daimler-Chrysler Sprinter Vans, School Buses, other prototypes

18 freedom in motion PLUG-IN HYBRIDS (PHEVs) Advantages: Advantages: Reduced fuel consumption and emissionsReduced fuel consumption and emissions Better fuel efficiency and performanceBetter fuel efficiency and performance At-home charging from standard 110-voltAt-home charging from standard 110-voltoutlet Energy recover from regenerative brakingEnergy recover from regenerative braking Lower fuel costs compared to typical batteryLower fuel costs compared to typical batteryhybrids Disadvantages: Disadvantages: Cost and size of batteriesCost and size of batteries Battery technology development ongoingBattery technology development ongoing Higher initial costHigher initial cost Cost and complexity of two powertainsCost and complexity of two powertains Added weightAdded weight Wide scale availability of charging locationsWide scale availability of charging locations Assumes over-night charging during non-peak periodAssumes over-night charging during non-peak period

19 freedom in motion CONTACT INFORMATION Mark E. Hairr Research Program Director ATTRP/University of Tennessee at Chattanooga 615 McCallie Avenue Dept. 2522, Room 214 EMCS Bldg. Chattanooga, TN


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