Presentation on theme: "School Bus Stabilization & Extrication"— Presentation transcript:
1 School Bus Stabilization & Extrication Developed byFF Jon M. GrazianiMaple Valley Fire & Life Safety
2 School Bus StatisticsEach year, school buses provide an estimated 10 billion student trips in the United States.Every school day, 475,000 school buses transport 25 million children to and from schools and school-related activities.
3 A little “History”The first school bus was horse-drawn, introduced in 1827 by George Shillibeer, it was designed to carry 25 children.
4 StatisticsOver the past 11 years school buses have annually averaged 26,000 crashes, resulting in 10 fatalities: 25% were drivers, 75% were passengers – National Highway Transportation Safety Administration
5 School Bus Occupant Hazards Most school bus fatalities occur outside the bus during loading and unloading of children.Most school bus injuries occur inside the school bus, 2/3 of the injuries are minor – patients were not properly positioned inside the seating area.
6 School Bus HazardsMost fatalities and accidents occur in the afternoon and mid-year; students and drivers aren’t thinking about a “school bus”, they’re usually thinking about what they will do when they get home. Most fatalities occur between December and May of each year. – State education department.
7 Scene ControlSchool bus crashes are extremely difficult, even for the seasoned veteran.Will draw enormous attentionStudents with cell phones will call parents, relatives or friendsAll of which will race to the scene frantic and worriedNews media will attempt to get pictures and storiesAs the clock ticks more and more people will be notified of the incidentTo deal with these people request law enforcement for traffic control and restrict access to unnecessary individuals
8 Scene ControlSet up a Staging area for Parents, Media, School RepresentativesAssign a PIOManage the VictimsFollow Zone 3 MCI protocolsEstablish Pre-determined response so decisions aren’t made by the seat of your pantsFire Department & EMSLocal School RepresentativesLaw Enforcement
9 Component HazardsSchool buses pose the same hazards as most vehicles on the roadway todaySize & Mass alone is a hazard to all working on/in/around a not properly stabilized vehicleFiresDense toxic fumes due to the use of flammable materials in seats.AccessNarrow aisle ways.
10 School Bus SystemsSimilar to other vehicles, School buses have batteries, fuel systems, air bags and seat belts.
11 Storage Compartments Built around the chassis Provides “false” support system for struts & cribbingLight gauge steel / NO structural supportAccessed from both sides“What’s inside the storage compartment?”
13 Engine AccessAll “cab-over” buses have engines mounted in the rear of the bus
14 Fuel Systems Fuel systems vary Diesel Gas Butane Propane Natural Gas HybridBe aware of the various fuel systems, be prepared to contain fuel spillage
15 Safety Features On-board Fire Extinguishers Emergency Escape Windows & Roof Hatches
16 School Bus AccessThe weakest to strongest parts of a school bus are as follows and should be considered as you gain access:1. Windows2. Windshield3. Doors4. The structure itself
17 Access Gaining access to the Cab can be simple to complex “Try before you Pry”Conscious driver, “ask them to open the door”Emergency ExitsWindows, Doors, and/or Roof hatchesUnconscious, utilize a pike pole through door windowThe goal is to find a way “IN” and a way “OUT”
18 Access Issues Resting on its wheels Resting on its side Emergency ExitsResting on its sideRemove front window as the Entry PointRemove rear window as the Egress PointBest operation is to operate the locking mechanism from the insideTotally remove the doorResting on its topRemove windows and exit doors
19 Window RemovalRemove two windows and the post to create a large access/egress point for rescuers and victimsThe window frame can be removed with a screw driver, window punch or hydraulic cuttersLaminated Glass on WindshieldRemove the rubber seal from window frame to pull windshield out intactTempered Glass on sides
20 Making a door from a window Once the glass is removed, utilize the cutters or reciprocating sawDetermine the size of the openingCut away the pillarsCut down to the floor board
21 StabilizationSchool buses are large vehicles weighing up to and in excess of 12 tons.Overall Size: Height and WeightRequires a large amount of cribbingBox cribbing will eventually distribute the weightStruts prevent horizontal movementTheir size creates stabilization obstacles not normally dealt with in passenger vehiclesAny shifting can harm rescuers and victimsBe aware of surroundings, identify a way out if conditions change
22 Stabilization Concerns Traditional Stabilization techniquesChock the wheelsTerminate electrical systemSet AirbrakeTurn OFF ignitionDo NOT deflate tires6 or more inches of downward movement on one side may cause a drastic tiltBus may not be totaled and will need to be moved or towed
23 Stabilization Basics Utilizing Stabilization Struts Remove compartment door (s) for proper anchoring pointYou must find a “safe” & “solid” anchoring pointThe “black” band is a safe anchoring point
24 Stabilization BasicsIf you choose to utilize box cribbing you must gain access to the frame railsStandard to Large dimensional lumber will be required
25 Extrication ToolsThe tools needed for bus extrication operations are carried on most fire enginesThe reciprocating saw is an excellent tool, it is light weight, smaller, allowing firefighters to cut overhead and in tight spacesAllows for quick work, electric powered are more reliable then battery poweredRequire 25+ replacement blades
26 Extrication Tools Tools and equipment that may be needed: Axes, Sledgehammers, Pry bars, Pike Poles, Utility KnivesHydraulic Spreaders/Cutters/RamCribbing (standard and large dimensional lumber)StrutsLifting AirbagsAir ChiselsPERSONNEL
27 Bus Vs. Vehicle “Under-Ride” “Tunneling” Operations are labor intensive and time consumingThe bus must be properly stabilized/to include suspensionThe vehicle must be stabilized / strap suspension to gain additional work space
28 Bus Vs. Vehicle “T-Bone” Perform all standard stabilization procedures before extrication operations beginDue to the height of a bus most accidents will be “under-ride” accidents that require some form of “tunneling” procedureDepending on patient location extrication procedures can be simple to technical
29 Rear AccessSimilar to a third door conversion on an “extended” cab vehicle:Cut the top pillarMake a relief cut and or cut the remainder of the paneling away with the cutters or Reciprocating sawReciprocating saw is the preferred toolPhoto’s courtesy of Brian Craig photography
30 Roof RemovalRoof construction consists of two layers of metal separated by insulationTime consuming if correct tools are not utilizedCircular sawPlunge blade deep enough to cut through both layers of metal and bracingsReciprocating sawHave extra blades on handAir chiselHave extra SCBA bottles available
31 Seat RemovalOnce access is gained to the seat and floor board the hydraulic cutters or spreaders can be utilized to remove the seat mounts from the floor board:Place the tips of the spreaders between the floorboard and mounting brackets and “pop” the seats from the floorPlace the cutting blades at the lowest point on the mounting brackets, then cut through the light gauge steelPhoto’s courtesy of Brian Craig photography
32 School Bus Fires Traditional “vehicle” fire tactics should be used Fuel Tanks are major hazardUp to 100 gallons of dieselGreater than 55 gallons is considered a Hazardous MaterialPlastic fuel tanks mounted under the chassisMajor fuel spill hazards
33 Suppression Operations Follow all vehicle fire suppression tacticsConventional Cab / Front mounted engineCab-Over / Rear mounted engine
34 The ENDThere is a great deal to learn about school buses and the challenges posed at a crash scene.Training & Preplanned coordination between fire & emergency services and local school transportation representatives can lead to a more effective and efficient operation
35 References: Paul Hasenmeier, City of Huron Fire Department Tom Kiurski, Livonia MI Fire & RescueGig Harbor Fire & Medic OneBrian Livingston, LN Curtis