Presentation on theme: "School Bus Stabilization & Extrication Developed by FF Jon M. Graziani Maple Valley Fire & Life Safety."— Presentation transcript:
School Bus Stabilization & Extrication Developed by FF Jon M. Graziani Maple Valley Fire & Life Safety
School Bus Statistics Each year, school buses provide an estimated 10 billion student trips in the United States. Every school day, 475,000 school buses transport 25 million children to and from schools and school-related activities.
A little History The first school bus was horse-drawn, introduced in 1827 by George Shillibeer, it was designed to carry 25 children.
Statistics Over the past 11 years school buses have annually averaged 26,000 crashes, resulting in 10 fatalities: 25% were drivers, 75% were passengers – National Highway Transportation Safety Administration
School Bus Occupant Hazards Most school bus fatalities occur outside the bus during loading and unloading of children. Most school bus injuries occur inside the school bus, 2/3 of the injuries are minor – patients were not properly positioned inside the seating area.
School Bus Hazards Most fatalities and accidents occur in the afternoon and mid-year; students and drivers arent thinking about a school bus, theyre usually thinking about what they will do when they get home. Most fatalities occur between December and May of each year. – State education department.
Scene Control School bus crashes are extremely difficult, even for the seasoned veteran. Will draw enormous attention Students with cell phones will call parents, relatives or friends All of which will race to the scene frantic and worried News media will attempt to get pictures and stories As the clock ticks more and more people will be notified of the incident To deal with these people request law enforcement for traffic control and restrict access to unnecessary individuals
Scene Control Set up a Staging area for Parents, Media, School Representatives Assign a PIO Manage the Victims Follow Zone 3 MCI protocols Establish Pre-determined response so decisions arent made by the seat of your pants Fire Department & EMS Local School Representatives Law Enforcement
Component Hazards School buses pose the same hazards as most vehicles on the roadway today Size & Mass alone is a hazard to all working on/in/around a not properly stabilized vehicle Fires Dense toxic fumes due to the use of flammable materials in seats. Access Narrow aisle ways.
School Bus Systems Similar to other vehicles, School buses have batteries, fuel systems, air bags and seat belts.
Storage Compartments Built around the chassis Provides false support system for struts & cribbing Light gauge steel / NO structural support Accessed from both sides Whats inside the storage compartment?
Engine Access All cab-over buses have engines mounted in the rear of the bus
Fuel Systems Fuel systems vary Diesel Gas Butane Propane Natural Gas Hybrid Be aware of the various fuel systems, be prepared to contain fuel spillage
Safety Features On-board Fire Extinguishers Emergency Escape Windows & Roof Hatches
School Bus Access The weakest to strongest parts of a school bus are as follows and should be considered as you gain access: 1.Windows 2. Windshield 3. Doors 4. The structure itself
Access Gaining access to the Cab can be simple to complex Try before you Pry Conscious driver, ask them to open the door Emergency Exits Windows, Doors, and/or Roof hatches Unconscious, utilize a pike pole through door window The goal is to find a way IN and a way OUT
Access Issues Resting on its wheels Emergency Exits Resting on its side Remove front window as the Entry Point Remove rear window as the Egress Point Best operation is to operate the locking mechanism from the inside Totally remove the door Resting on its top Remove windows and exit doors
Window Removal Remove two windows and the post to create a large access/egress point for rescuers and victims The window frame can be removed with a screw driver, window punch or hydraulic cutters Laminated Glass on Windshield Remove the rubber seal from window frame to pull windshield out intact Tempered Glass on sides
Making a door from a window Once the glass is removed, utilize the cutters or reciprocating saw Determine the size of the opening Cut away the pillars Cut down to the floor board
Stabilization School buses are large vehicles weighing up to and in excess of 12 tons. Overall Size: Height and Weight Requires a large amount of cribbing Box cribbing will eventually distribute the weight Struts prevent horizontal movement Their size creates stabilization obstacles not normally dealt with in passenger vehicles Any shifting can harm rescuers and victims Be aware of surroundings, identify a way out if conditions change
Stabilization Concerns Traditional Stabilization techniques Chock the wheels Terminate electrical system Set Airbrake Turn OFF ignition Do NOT deflate tires 6 or more inches of downward movement on one side may cause a drastic tilt Bus may not be totaled and will need to be moved or towed
Stabilization Basics Utilizing Stabilization Struts Remove compartment door (s) for proper anchoring point You must find a safe & solid anchoring point The black band is a safe anchoring point
Stabilization Basics If you choose to utilize box cribbing you must gain access to the frame rails Standard to Large dimensional lumber will be required
Extrication Tools The tools needed for bus extrication operations are carried on most fire engines The reciprocating saw is an excellent tool, it is light weight, smaller, allowing firefighters to cut overhead and in tight spaces Allows for quick work, electric powered are more reliable then battery powered Require 25+ replacement blades
Extrication Tools Tools and equipment that may be needed: Axes, Sledgehammers, Pry bars, Pike Poles, Utility Knives Hydraulic Spreaders/Cutters/Ram Cribbing (standard and large dimensional lumber) Struts Lifting Airbags Air Chisels PERSONNEL
Bus Vs. Vehicle Under-Ride Tunneling Operations are labor intensive and time consuming The bus must be properly stabilized/to include suspension The vehicle must be stabilized / strap suspension to gain additional work space
Bus Vs. Vehicle T-Bone Perform all standard stabilization procedures before extrication operations begin Due to the height of a bus most accidents will be under-ride accidents that require some form of tunneling procedure Depending on patient location extrication procedures can be simple to technical
Rear Access Similar to a third door conversion on an extended cab vehicle: Cut the top pillar Make a relief cut and or cut the remainder of the paneling away with the cutters or Reciprocating saw Reciprocating saw is the preferred tool Photos courtesy of Brian Craig photography
Roof Removal Roof construction consists of two layers of metal separated by insulation Time consuming if correct tools are not utilized Circular saw Plunge blade deep enough to cut through both layers of metal and bracings Reciprocating saw Have extra blades on hand Air chisel Have extra SCBA bottles available
Seat Removal Once access is gained to the seat and floor board the hydraulic cutters or spreaders can be utilized to remove the seat mounts from the floor board: Place the tips of the spreaders between the floorboard and mounting brackets and pop the seats from the floor Place the cutting blades at the lowest point on the mounting brackets, then cut through the light gauge steel Photos courtesy of Brian Craig photography
School Bus Fires Traditional vehicle fire tactics should be used Fuel Tanks are major hazard Up to 100 gallons of diesel Greater than 55 gallons is considered a Hazardous Material Plastic fuel tanks mounted under the chassis Major fuel spill hazards
Suppression Operations Follow all vehicle fire suppression tactics Conventional Cab / Front mounted engine Cab-Over / Rear mounted engine
The END There is a great deal to learn about school buses and the challenges posed at a crash scene. Training & Preplanned coordination between fire & emergency services and local school transportation representatives can lead to a more effective and efficient operation
References: Paul Hasenmeier, City of Huron Fire Department Tom Kiurski, Livonia MI Fire & Rescue Gig Harbor Fire & Medic One Brian Livingston, LN Curtis