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PHYSICS LECTURE RESOURCES Introduction to Physics and 1-D Motion happyphysics.com Happy Model Hr. Sec. School Udhampur, India Email: mineesh.gulati@gmail.com

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Text Book Phundamentals of Physics F 7th Edition Halliday, Resnick and Walker happyphysics.com

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lectures slides problems

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Ptolemy Kepler Kelper and Tycho-Brahe Newton ????? Marie Curie Maria Mayer Yukawa Galileo happyphysics.com

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Earth Water Air Fire Earth Water Air Fire In 500 BC Physics was quite simple Kinematics Astronomy Dynamics Objects stay at rest unless being pushed! happyphysics.com

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Aristotle 384 BC -322 BC happyphysics.com

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(1971) The retrograde motion in the orbit of mars was a serious challenge to the standard geocentric cosmology which demanded that all the planets orbit the earth. Ptolemy (85-165 AD) came up with an elaborate mechanism to keep the earth at the center of the Universe. September 4 July 26 June 6October 14 happyphysics.com

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Ptolemys Epicycles (85-165 AD) happyphysics.com

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Crystal sphere with stars Paradise Earth Can you imagine no change to this theory for more than 1000 years! Can you imagine no change to this theory for more than 1000 years! happyphysics.com

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Copernicus ~1540 Earth revolves around the Sun ---365 days Earth rotates on its axis -- 1 day happyphysics.com

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Retrograde motion according to Copernicus happyphysics.com

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Galilei Galileo 1564 - 1642 happyphysics.com

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Keplers Laws of Planetary Motion Johannes Kepler 1571-1630 Law 1The planets circulate in eliptical orbits with the sun at one focus Law 2A line joining the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas per unit time. happyphysics.com

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The law of areas When closer to the sun, the planet moves faster happyphysics.com

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A CHRONOLOGY OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 1440 Gutenberg completed his wooden press which used metal moving type. 1543 Nicolas Copernicus publishes On The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres 1571 Tycho Brahe develops instruments for precise astronomical observation and records positions of stars and planets. He creates a Tychonic System of the cosmos called geoheliocentric. Planets revolve around the sun, while the sun and planets still revolve around the central earth 1609 Johannes Kepler publishes his first and second Laws of Planetary motion. (l) Planetary orbits are elliptical. (2) Planets sweep out equal areas in equal times 1609 Galileo Galilei develops a telescope of 30X magnification and begins observations 1619 Kepler announces his Third Law of Planetary Motion which stated that a planet's distance from the sun is related to the time it takes a planet to revolve around the sun 1632 Galileo publishes his Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World which popularized the Copernican system and articulated the concept of a world subject to mathematical laws 1633 Galileo is denounced by the Inquisition and forced to recant his belief in Copernican theory 1667 Sir Isaac Newton constructs the first reflecting telescope 1687 Newton publishes his Principia Mathematica which explained gravitation, contained the components of Newtonian Physics (matter, motion, space, attraction), and challenged the Aristotelian/Ptolemaic cosmos. A CHRONOLOGY OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 1440 Gutenberg completed his wooden press which used metal moving type. 1543 Nicolas Copernicus publishes On The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres 1571 Tycho Brahe develops instruments for precise astronomical observation and records positions of stars and planets. He creates a Tychonic System of the cosmos called geoheliocentric. Planets revolve around the sun, while the sun and planets still revolve around the central earth 1609 Johannes Kepler publishes his first and second Laws of Planetary motion. (l) Planetary orbits are elliptical. (2) Planets sweep out equal areas in equal times 1609 Galileo Galilei develops a telescope of 30X magnification and begins observations 1619 Kepler announces his Third Law of Planetary Motion which stated that a planet's distance from the sun is related to the time it takes a planet to revolve around the sun 1632 Galileo publishes his Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World which popularized the Copernican system and articulated the concept of a world subject to mathematical laws 1633 Galileo is denounced by the Inquisition and forced to recant his belief in Copernican theory 1667 Sir Isaac Newton constructs the first reflecting telescope 1687 Newton publishes his Principia Mathematica which explained gravitation, contained the components of Newtonian Physics (matter, motion, space, attraction), and challenged the Aristotelian/Ptolemaic cosmos. happyphysics.com

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JOHANNES VERMEER ~1660 The year Newton postulated gravity! happyphysics.com

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The Astronomer Vermeer 1668 The Geographer Vermeer 1668/9 These paintings reflect the blossoming of scientific enquiry in seventeenth century Europe. At this time, Newton is making the first reflecting telescopes, Louis XIV is building an observatory in Paris, the satellites of Jupiter are being used for navigation at sea, and Huygens has discovered the sixth satellite of Saturn. The old views, that it would be presumptive for man to probe too closely the sky or the Earth, are being replaced by modern principles of science. happyphysics.com

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Woman peeling potatoes Gabriel Metsu (~1660) GabrielMetsu Courtyard (1658) Pieter dePieter de HoochHooch Milkmaid Vermeer (~1660)Vermeer Sick Child Sick Child Gabriel Metsu (1660) GabrielMetsu At this time artists began to paint pictures of everyday people and events. Women and their children The everyday tasks of caring for a family The caring love for a sick child At this time artists began to paint pictures of everyday people and events. Women and their children The everyday tasks of caring for a family The caring love for a sick child happyphysics.com

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Monteverdi Bach Vivaldi Scarlatti Purcell Mozart Handel And over this same period, as Physics became liberated and questioning, as architecture flourished, and art became less constrained and reflected the real world, there developed a blossoming of music. The baroque period: new enlightened and liberated forms of music, and newly developed instruments. The chamber works of Vivaldi The splendor of Bachs organ works The choral works of Monteverdi and Handel The new opera works of Purcell The genius of Mozart So we see that in this revolutionary time, Physics was ready for Newton (born in1643), to revolutionize our understanding of mechanics.. And over this same period, as Physics became liberated and questioning, as architecture flourished, and art became less constrained and reflected the real world, there developed a blossoming of music. The baroque period: new enlightened and liberated forms of music, and newly developed instruments. The chamber works of Vivaldi The splendor of Bachs organ works The choral works of Monteverdi and Handel The new opera works of Purcell The genius of Mozart So we see that in this revolutionary time, Physics was ready for Newton (born in1643), to revolutionize our understanding of mechanics.. happyphysics.com

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Isaac Newton 1642-1727 happyphysics.com

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Why is it so!!! Riding a bike The unstable top Racing down hill happyphysics.com

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For you to read by next lecture Review of Year 12 Physics 2.3 Defining position in 1D 2.4-2.6 Definitions of average and instantaneous speed and acceleration in 1D. The relationships between these 2.7 The case of constant acceleration (VCE Physics) Read this for next lecture 3.2- 3.6 Specifying vectors Sections from the Text book: happyphysics.com

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For Next Lecture: What is her average speed ? What is her average velocity ?What do you mean by velocity? To think about: 1 km 2 km If she rode directly to school, what would be her speed? Velocity? I will quiz you on this next lecture. happyphysics.com

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Here endeth the lesson lecture No. 1 happyphysics.com

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m K M r Johannes Kepler Isaac Newton Consider leaving this to later happyphysics.com

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If it is moving with a constant velocity, IT WILL CONTINUE TO DO SO In the absence of a FORCE a body is at rest 1760 BC A body only moves if it is driven. In the absence of a FORCE A body at rest WILL REMAIN AT REST 350 BC happyphysics.com

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40% Q P. R

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Rectilinear Motion Straight line Motion Kinematics HOW things move Dynamics Erect = straight WHY things move happyphysics.com

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x Distance travelled in equal time intervals happyphysics.com

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x Time (t) Dist (x) x x x x happyphysics.com

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Time (t) Dist (x) x x1x1 t1t1 x2x2 x3x3 x4x4 x5x5 t2t2 t3t3 t4t4 t5t5 x t Average speed speed = distance. time taken happyphysics.com

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Gradient of the x-t curve Time (t) Dist (x) x x1x1 x2x2 x3x3 x5x5 x6x6 t3t3 x4x4 t4t4 x t x4x4 t4t4 x t Instantaneous speed happyphysics.com

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If we know x(t), we can find v(t) Position (x) Position as a function of time happyphysics.com

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If we know x (t), we can find v(t) time Speed as a function of time happyphysics.com

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If we know x (t), we can find v(t) Similarly if we know v(t), we can find a(t) since time Acceleration as a function of time happyphysics.com

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If we know a(t), we can find v(t), since: And from v(t) we can find x(t), since From acceleration speed distance happyphysics.com

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If acceleration is constant, life is easy! VCE easy t 0 t (t) (accel) (t) speed v 0 Similarly x-x 0 = v 0 t + ½ at 2 v 2 = v 0 2 + 2as etc. if t 0 = 0, See slide lect 2 happyphysics.com

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1-D (linear kinematics) with constant acceleration 1-D (linear kinematics) with constant acceleration VCE Physics See modified slide lecture 2 happyphysics.com

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2-D Kinematics have magnitude and direction distance displacement speed velocity happyphysics.com

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Distance from Melbourne to Bendigo = 1600 km Displacement of Bendigo rel. to Melbourne = 200 km (NW) Average velocity = displacement/time = 200/2 = 100 km/h N.W. Average speed= distance/time = 1600/20 = 80 km/h happyphysics.com

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Y X P 1 (x 1, y 1 ) P 2 (x 2, y 2 ) y1y1 y2y2 x1x1 x2x2 r1r1 r2r2 1 2 r 1 = ix 1 + jy 1 +( kz 1 ) r 2 = ix 2 + jy 2 +( kz 1 ) r r = i(x 2 - x 1 ) + j(y 2 -y 1 ) + r = i x + j y + y x r = r 2 - r 1 r = (ix 2 + jy 2 ) -(ix 1 + jy 1 ) r 1 is the vector displacement of P 1 rel to origin r 2 is the displacement vector of P 2 rel to origin r is the displacement vector of P 2 rel to P 1 The length of r 1 = Unit vectors happyphysics.com

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P 1 (x 1, y 1 ) P 2 (x 2, y 2 ) 1 2 r Y X y1y1 y2y2 x1x1 x2x2 r1r1 r2r2 y x Average velocity V av is in direction of r Instantaneous happyphysics.com

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