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MODULE 1 Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports: An Overview.

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Presentation on theme: "MODULE 1 Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports: An Overview."— Presentation transcript:

1 MODULE 1 Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports: An Overview

2 Before starting the Module, complete the pre-test Module 1 Knowledge Pre-assessment

3 Module Objectives Describe Positive Behavior Supports and Importance in School Settings Provide an Overview of the 3 Tiers of School- wide Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports Identify the Impact of Implementing School- wide Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports Illustrate the connection between Response to Intervention for Academics and Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports

4 Jargon Buster Positive Behavior Supports (PBS): an applied science that uses educational methods to expand an individuals behavioral repertoire and systems change methods to redesign environments to enhance quality of life and minimize problem behavior (Carr et al., 2002) Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports (PBIS) : a framework for enhancing the adoption and implementation of a continuum of evidence-based interventions to achieve academically and behaviorally important outcomes for all students (Sugai et al., 2000) School-wide PBIS (SWPBIS) : emphasizes four integrated elements: (a) data for decision making, (b) measurable outcomes supported and evaluated by data, (c) practices with evidence that these outcomes are achievable, and (d) systems that efficiently and effectively support implementation of these practices Multi-tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) : continuum of evidence- based practices focused on prevention and early intervention to address academic and behavioral needs Evidence-based Practices (EBPs) : interventions and supports backed by repeated empirical evidence of effectiveness

5 What is PBS in School Settings? Application of scientifically-validated strategies and systems of prevention to: Increase appropriate behavior (and decrease inappropriate behavior) Increase academic performance Increase safety and well being Establish a positive school culture PBS can be employed at the school-wide, classroom, targeted group, and individual student level An Intro to SWPBIS (for PA schools): on_to1 on_to1 School CommunityFamily

6 PBIS Framework Framework consists of 4 integrated elements Outcomes: Measurable goals of academic and behavioral success E.g., 95% daily attendance rate, reduction in suspensions Data: Ongoing collection of information that will help inform decisions regarding effectiveness E.g., Office Discipline Referrals, Attendance, Grades Systems: Supports provided to staff to implement PBIS E.g., School-wide Expectations, Discipline Referral Process Practices: Procedures and techniques utilized by school to promote expected behaviors E.g., Posted Expectations, Systematic Observation, Caught Being Good Tickets Outcomes Data Practices Systems


8 PBS: Tiered Interventions Universal/Prevention for All School Systems and Practices to Teach and Acknowledge Appropriate Behaviors, Continuum of Interventions for Inappropriate Behaviors Targeted Interventions for Some Rapid Response and Intervention for Students Engaging in Repeated Inappropriate Behaviors Intensive, Individualized Interventions for Few Individual Student and Family Supports for Students Engaging in Chronic and/or Severe Behaviors

9 Why is PBS Important in School Settings? There is an increasing need to address the social and emotional well-being of children in our schools today. Teachers report that students are increasingly unprepared to meet the academic and behavioral expectations at schools, with less support from families Although school violence has decreased, there is an increased proportion of the school-age population experiencing academic and behavioral difficulties, displaying anti-social behaviors, and becoming entangled with juvenile justice systems Media attention has increasingly focused on failing schools and sensational bullying events There are increasing degrees of school bullying, relational aggression and other forms of inappropriate student behaviors that disrupts the learning environment and can impede healthy child development and achievement.

10 PBIS Schools In the USA, over 18,000 PBIS schools ( In PA, over 350 PBIS schools are formally participating in the PA PBS Network

11 Inappropriate Student Behavior Student actions that are not consistent with behavioral expectations at school. There are two general types of inappropriate student behavior: Nuisance behaviorInconsequential Inappropriate behavior that does not appear (by itself) to be harmful or unsafe at that moment in time (e.g. off task behavior, calling out without raising hand). Problem behaviorConsequential Inappropriate behavior that is harmful and/or unsafe which must be immediately stopped with the student redirected to act in more appropriate manner (e.g. aggressive behavior such as hitting and/or property destruction).

12 Bullying School Bullying Type of bullying that occurs in connection with education, either inside or outside of school. Bullying can be physical, verbal, or emotional and is usually repeated over a period of time. Relational Aggression Form of emotional bullying behavior emphasizing intent to harm others by manipulation of social standing or relationships (excluding others, starting rumors, gossiping).

13 School-wide PBIS [SWPBIS] Prevention-oriented multi-tiered approach applied across all settings at school Students have access to instruction and supports to prevent the development and occurrence of inappropriate behavior Emphasizes appropriate behavior within/across all school contexts (e.g. classroom, hallway, other common spaces)

14 PBIS: Universal Prevention- Tier 1 Core principles of PBIS: We can effectively teach appropriate behavior to all children Intervene early Use of a multi-tier model of service delivery Use research-based, scientifically validated interventions to the greatest extent available Monitor student progress to inform design/delivery of interventions Use data to make decisions

15 PBIS: Universal Prevention- Tier 1 Universal Prevention is significant in that it moves schools emphasis from reactive approaches to proactive systems. Cohesively unites all the adults in using common language, common practices, and consistent application of reinforcement to promote expected behaviors.

16 PBIS: Universal Prevention- Tier 1 Behavioral expectations are established, explicitly taught, and reinforced with all students by all staff at school. E.g., Be Respectful, Be Responsible, Be Safe Frequent and random reinforcement for demonstration of expected behaviors Behavior-specific praise. Great job being safe in the computer lab. 80 - 90% of students in most schools will sufficiently respond to Universal Prevention (i.e., will not engage in significant misbehavior or chronic nuisance behaviors).

17 PBIS: Tier II ( Targeted Prevention) Students who do not respond sufficiently to Universal Prevention (i.e., have been sent to the office 2-5 times during the academic year due to significant misbehaviors) require Tier II supports Emphasizes more intensive instruction and reinforcement through targeted interventions and supports (e.g. mentoring, check-in check-out, check / connect programs, self-monitoring). 5-15% of students in most schools may require Targeted Prevention

18 PBIS: Tier III ( Individual, Intensive Intervention) Students who do not respond sufficiently to Universal and Targeted Prevention (i.e., have been sent to the office 6 or more times during the academic year due to significant misbehaviors) require intensive, individualized interventions and supports (Tier III) Often integrate supports from other community services in tandem with application of wraparound approaches. 3-5% of students in most PBIS schools may require Individual Intensive interventions based on the results of a functional behavior assessment (FBA); Once the function (purpose) of the inappropriate behavior has been identified, an intervention plan to improve the behavior is developed What is an FBA?

19 What is the Impact of SWPBIS? Is it worth the effort?

20 The Cost of Discipline Each time a student receives an office discipline referral (ODR) and sent to the office, it costs approximately 20 minutes of time (45 minutes if the incident results in a suspension) Tardy Middle School 2011-12 (Before Implementing SWPBIS)2012-13 (Implementing SWPBIS) 20 Minutes per Major ODR 45 Minutes per Major ODR Resulting in Suspension 20 Minutes per Major ODR 45 Minutes per Major ODR Resulting in Suspension 2340 ODRs250 ODRs955 ODRs51 ODRs 780 hours of Administrator and Student Time Lost 188 hours of Administrator and Student Time Lost 318 hours of Administrator and Student Time Lost 38 hours of Administrator and Student Time Lost

21 Less ODRs More Instructional Time Academic Gains have been linked to implementation of SWPBIS Teachers spend less time disciplining and more time teaching Students are more actively engaged with more opportunities to learn

22 Impact of SWPBIS Reduction in problem behaviors 1 and office discipline referrals 2 Improved academic gains and social behavior 3 Supports teachers well-being and sense of competence 4 1 Horner et al., 2005 2 Barrett et al., 2008; Eber, 2006; Horner et al., 2005; Lohrman-ORourke et al., 2000; Luiselli, Putnam, & Sunderland, 2002; Olmstead v. L.C., 1999; Taylor-Greene et al., 1997; Taylor-Greene & Kartub, 2000 3 Eber, 2006; Gottfredson et al., 1993; Kellam et al., 1994; McIntosh et al, 2006; J. R. Nelson et al., 2002; Putnam et al., 2006 4 Grayson & Alvarez, 2008; Jennings & Greenberg, 2009; Oliver & Reschly, 2007

23 Impact of SWPBIS on Teachers Encourages a positive, supportive school culture Teachers have the opportunity to collaborate with their colleagues to implement effective practices Increases positive interactions between teachers and students (which decreases teacher stressors and increases sense of efficacy) (Ross, Romer, & Horner, 2012)

24 PBIS in the News PBIS_In_the_News.html

25 What About Academics? Response to Intervention and PBIS

26 Response to Intervention ( RTI) and PBIS RTI is the practice of organizing school-wide high- quality instruction and interventions matched to student need within a multi- tiered framework, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals, and applying child response data to important educational decisions (Batsche et al., 2005). RTI organizes the delivery of a range of evidence-based interventions and supports based on each child's needs. PBIS is based on a problem solving approach that reflects data-based, multi-tiered systems of interventions and supports with the aim to prevent inappropriate behaviors by teaching and reinforcing appropriate behaviors within and across all school settings. PBIS provides a range of evidence-based interventions and supports based on each childs needs.

27 Similarities between Academic and Behavioral Challenges Students requiring Tier 2 and/or Tier 3 supports struggle academically due to skill deficits and/or difficulties with academic skill fluency/ mastery. Direct instruction using evidenced-based strategies is required to address academic skill deficits and/or skill fluency problems. It is important to teach for initial academic skill acquisition, maintenance over time, and generalization across contexts. Students requiring Tier 2 and/or Tier 3 supports struggle behaviorally (socially/emotionally) due to social skill deficits and/or difficulties with social skill fluency/mastery. Direct instruction using evidenced-based strategies is required to address social skills deficits and/or skill fluency problems. It is important to teach for social skill acquisition, maintenance, and generalization. Academic Challenges Behavioral Challenges

28 Relationship between RTI and SWPBIS Emphasis is on prevention and early intervention through evidenced-based practices. Imbedded in differentiated instruction. Layered components of interventions and supports across Universal Prevention (Tier 1), Targeted Prevention (Tier 2), and Individual-Intensive Intervention (Tier 3). Focus on how to best meet the needs of all children including any given child experiencing social and academic difficulties. Provides effective strategies to support growth and development. Reflects data-based decision making and alignment of systems of interventions and supports.

29 Academics and/or Behavior High quality instruction for 100% of students Targeted in-class interventions for 10-20% of students More intensive interventions for 5-10% of students Specialized instruction for 1-5% of students Continuum of Practices to Assist ALL Students to Be Successful

30 Additional Website Resources McDowell Institute for Teacher Excellence in Positive Behavior Supports ( Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports ( Association for Positive Behavior Support ( PA Positive Behavior Support ( The Iris Center ( Intervention Central (

31 Congratulations! You have completed Module 1. Click on the link to complete the knowledge assessment. Module 1 Knowledge Post-Assessment

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