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Geos 435, Intro to Sed/Strat 1 Sedimentary Geology An Introduction To Sedimentology And Stratigraphy.

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Presentation on theme: "Geos 435, Intro to Sed/Strat 1 Sedimentary Geology An Introduction To Sedimentology And Stratigraphy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geos 435, Intro to Sed/Strat 1 Sedimentary Geology An Introduction To Sedimentology And Stratigraphy

2 2 Sedimentary Geology Sedimentology: –Processes that erode, transport, and deposit sediments –Surface environments of sediment accumulation –Genesis of sedimentary strata Sedimentary Petrology: –Physical and mineralogical properties and origin of sediments and sedimentary rocks (SEDS) Stratigraphy: –Distribution, origin, and description of sedimentary strata in space and time

3 3 Relevance of Sedimentary Geology ~ 75% of the Earth's Surface materials consists of SEDS (sedimentary earth materials) SEDS contain the majority of Earth Resources –Oil, Natural gas, fossils fuels –minerals –water –building materials –Subsurface fluid storage

4 4 Earth History Largely based on the SED Record Climate/atmospheric dynamics through time Paleoceanography Plate tectonics and crustal dynamics History of Life

5 5 Environmental/Natural Hazards An understanding of Earth Surface Processes and Materials is fundamental to: Slope Stability: Landslide and catastrophic slope failure Fluvial processes: river basin flood hazards Coastal Change: erosion/flooding hazards; coastal land loss Ground water resources: contamination/remediation

6 6 Sedimentary Geology is Fun! We see SEDS and sedimentary environments all around us We observe and hear about exciting surface processes almost every day, We are all interested in the past and future evolution of the Earth, especially the Earths Surface Environments (cuz we are Geoscientists!)

7 7 Social Relevance of Sedimentary Geology Chat with one or 2 other students and list five important issues of our time Lets see how sedimentary geology might address these issues

8 8 History of Sedimentary Geology Nick Steno: 17th centuryOriginal horizontality/Superposition Jimmy Hutton: 18th centuryThe geological cycle: including surface erosion and deposition/Uniformitarianism Billy Smith: 17th/18th century Faunal Succession d'Orbigney/Oppel: 18th/19th century Stages, Zones, Biozones Hank Sorby: 19th centurySedimentary Petrology/Petrography Lots o Folks: 1960's - 70'sPlate Tectonics Al Scott, Bill Galloway (UT Austin); Harold Reading (Oxford Un); and many others: 1970's - 80's Depositional Systems Analysis/ Facies Oriented Sedimentology Exxon Research, Peter Vail: 1970's - 80's Seismic/Sequence Stratigraphy Jan VanHinte, and many others: 1970s-80s Quantitative Basin Modeling: 1980's - 90's

9 9 Sedimentary Geology is a "synthesis course" It depends on other geology courses and other science disciplines: Physics: fluid dynamics, petrophysics, plate tectonics Chemistry: weathering, chemical sediments, diagenesis, sedimentary petrology Biology: paleoecology, sedimentary environments, the fossil record

10 10 Sedimentary Geology provides the framework for most other Geosciences disciplines Structural Analysis Studies: requires an understanding of initial sedimentary and stratigraphic context prior to deformation, etc. Geochemical Studies: require a stratigraphic and petrological context Hydrogeological Studies: depend on an understanding of the hydrogeological matrix" both macro- and micro-scale Geophysical Studies: built on a stratigraphic context and requires "ground truth" based on a reasonable sedimentologic and stratigraphic framework.

11 11 Sedimentary Geology is the Study of Sedimentary Processes and Stratigraphic Products (Process - Response Models) Sedimentary Facies –A sedimentary facies--> descriptive aspect of a rock stratigraphic unit including lithology, sedimentary structures, geometry, fossils, etc Sedimentary-Depositional Environments –Limited areas of the Earths surface where sediment accumulates, from mountain top to deep sea, with distinctive physical, chemical, and biological processes. Paleogeography –Determined from the stratigraphic record of sedimentary facies and the time/space distribution of sedimentary- depositional environments

12 12 Paleogeography and Earth History The time and space mosaic of sedimentary- depositional environments reflecting the evolution of: Tectonic, Climatic, Biologic, and Eustatic (sea level) Dynamics through time, either on a relative (geological) or absolute (radiometric) time frame

13 13 Sedimentary Geology Provides methodology and a theoretical basis to understand: Stratigraphic relationships –relative age, geometry, physical/spatial relationship of strata Provenance –sediment source, location, type, etc Depositional setting, sediment dispersal patterns, and transport mechanisms –sedimentary processes Paleogeography –physical geography during deposition Tectonic setting –Plate tectonic setting during deposition Diagenesis –modifications to sediment during burial and the conditions (temperature, timing, fluid flow regime) responsible for those changes

14 14 Using the Principles of Sedimentary Geology We can make useful interpretations and predictions about : Relationships that are not available for observation (hidden from view) –Spatial distribution, properties, and geometry of stratigraphic units and resources that are not exposed/have not been sampled Relationships that are not preserved in the geological record –Geological terranes eroded or tectonically removed Earth processes that have not yet occurred –Environmental hazards such as coastal change, flood hazards, landslides, etc

15 15 Class Attendance and Engagement The emphasis in this class is on application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of our topic material (higher order thinking skills) active learning strategies (in the class room) move beyond passive participation in the learning experience (sitting and listening to me) aggressively think about what you are learning hard, time consuming work

16 16 Class Attendance and Engagement Active learning strategy in the class room requires some prior knowledge and comprehension of topic material in preparation for class discussions mastery of basic facts and vocabulary –Book and Power Point Presentations use class time efficiently and effectively for the development of higher level intellectual skills

17 17 Class Attendance and Engagement Inquiry-based portion of class meetings a collaborative learning format Small groups (2-3) of students working together to process knowledge and reach conclusions to questions through thinking and discussion amongst the collaborative group In class group accountability

18 18 Class Attendance and Engagement In-class group accountability. Each group member is accountable for the information/conclusions reached by the group in class. A group member will be selected by me to present group consensus conclusions in class. The evaluation of the group is dependant on the individuals presentation which will assess the effectiveness of group comprehension

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