Presentation on theme: "Poetic Meter Iamb (Iambic ) ̌ ʹ That time of year thou mayst in me behold --- Sonnet 73 by William Shakespeare Trochee (Trochaic) ʹ ̌ TY ger TY ger BURNning."— Presentation transcript:
Poetic Meter Iamb (Iambic ) ̌ ʹ That time of year thou mayst in me behold --- Sonnet 73 by William Shakespeare Trochee (Trochaic) ʹ ̌ TY ger TY ger BURNning BRIGHT -- "The Tyger," by William Blake
Poetic Meter Iamb (Iambic ) ̌ ʹ That time of year thou mayst in me behold Sonnet 73 by William Shakespeare Trochee (Trochaic) ʹ ̌ TY ger TY ger BURNning BRIGHT "The Tyger," by William Blake Anapest (Anapestic) ̌ ̌ ʹ The As SYRian came DOWN like the WOLF on the FOLD "The Destruction of Sennacherib Lord Byron Dactyl (Dactylic) ʹ ̌ ̌ This is the forest primeval, the murmuring pines and the hemlock Evangeline by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Spondee (Spondaic) ʹ ʹ Pyrrhic ̌ ̌
Meter meter: a poems pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Meter is generally described by the dominant foot of the poem and the number of times the foot is typically repeated in a line of the poem. For example, a poem that generally has an iambic foot (˘) repeated five times (pentameter) in a line of poetry uses iambic pentameter (˘/˘/˘/˘/˘). Blank verse is unrhymed iambic pentameter.
Poetic line length Monometer One Foot Dimeter Two Feet TrimeterThree Feet Tetrameter Four Feet Pentameter Five Feet Hexameter Six Feet Heptameter Seven Feet Octameter Eight Feet
Stanza stanza: A group of lines, generally (but not always) separated by a blank line or space. Stanza types are often denoted by the number of lines in the stanza: couplet (2) triplet (3) quatrain (4)quintet (5) sestet (6)septet (7) octave(8)
Sonnets 14 line lyric Single stanza Iambic pentameter line Intricate rhyme scheme Common themes of love, desire, and death Diversity of sonnet models: –Italian (Petrarchan), –English (Shakespearean), and Spenserian
Italian/Petrarchan Sonnet Named for Petrarch 2 main units –Octaveeight line sectionrhyming abbaabba –Sestetsix line sectionrhyming cdecde or variation (e.g. cdccdc) Octave presents problem or poses scenario that is answered or resolved in sestet Becomes imitated in English by Milton, Wordsworth, and Rossetti
Sonnet 7: ON HIS BEING ARRIVED AT THE AGE OF 23 by John Milton HOW soon hath time, the subtle thief of youth,a Stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year!b My hasting days fly on with full career,b But my late spring no bud or blossom sheweth.a Perhaps my semblance might deceive the truth,a That I to manhood am arrived so near,b And inward ripeness doth much less appearb That some more timely happy spirits indueth.a Yet be it less or more, or soon or slow,c It shall be still in strictest measure evend To that same lot however mean or high,e Toward which time leads me and the will of heaven.d All is, if I have grace to use it so,c As ever in my great taskmaster's eye.e
Nature by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow As a fond mother, when the day is o'er,A Leads by the hand her little child to bed,B Half willing, half reluctant to be led,B And leave his broken playthings on the floor,A Still gazing at them through the open door,A Nor wholly reassured and comfortedB By promises of others in their stead,B Which, though more splendid, may not please him more;A So Nature deals with us, and takes awayC Our playthings one by one, and by the handD Leads us to rest so gently, that we goE Scarce knowing if we wish to go or stay,C Being too full of sleep to understandD How the unknown transcends the what we know.E
Nature explained The octave (the"vehicle" of the simile) establishes the images that are paralleled in the sestet (the "tenor" of the simile). In the opening octave, the image is that of a fond mother leading to bed a reluctant child, who gazes at his broken toys, wondering if he will like the things that will replace them as much as them. Longfellow's Nature, Journal article by Harold Aspiz; The Explicator, Vol. 42, 1983
Nature In the second octave, the speaker parallels the images in the tenor of the simile. So Nature [in age] deals with us, and takes away /Our playthings one by one, and … Leads us to rest [death]so gently, that we go Scarce knowing if we wish to go or stay, Being too full of sleep to understand How the unknown [afterlife] transcends the what we know.
English Sonnet Also known as Shakespearean sonnet Three quatrains (4 line poetic section) with a final couplet –abab cdcd efef gg Each quatrain presents a view of a problem The final couplet presents an epigrammatic thought or conclusion
Sonnet 18 by William Shakespeare Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? A Thou art more lovely and more temperate: B Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, A And summer's lease hath all too short a date: B Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, C And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; D And every fair from fair sometime declines, C By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd;D But thy eternal summer shall not fade E Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; F Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, E When in eternal lines to time thou growest: F So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, G So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. G
William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18 English sonnet Beloved more lovely than a summers day Beloved does not fade Endurance of poetry
Sonnet 18 explained In the first quatrain, the speaker establishes the conceit: he is comparing his beloved to a summers day, focusing on temperance and endurance.
Sonnet 18 The second quatrain develops the concept that summer is not temperate or enduring; sometimes it is too hot and unpredictable, as fair from fair declines by chance (foul weather) or natures changing course (in the course of the seasons, summer leads to fall).
Sonnet 18 The third quatrain begins with [b]ut, shifting the focus to how the beloved is more temperate and eternal, stating that for thy eternal summer shall not fade. But thy eternal summer shall not fade E Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; F Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, E When in eternal lines to time thou growest: F
Sonnet Great diversity of form and subject matter Initially about love and courtship Becomes used to address religious, political, and personal issues Can be presented as occasional poem poems that memorialize or celebrate specific day or occasion Can be presented in sequence
Sonnet 18 The final couplet asserts the main thought in an epigram: So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. In other words, as long as this sonnet survives, he has immortalized his beloved in verse.
Stanza stanza: A group of lines, generally (but not always) separated by a blank line or space. Stanza types are often denoted by the number of lines in the stanza: couplet (2), triplet (3), quatrain, quintet, sestet, septet, octave) and by the rhyme scheme or other such characteristics.
Spenserian Sonnet Minor variation of English sonnet Still thee quatrains and final couplet Quatrains linked by continuing rhyme –abab bcbc cdcd ee
Foot foot: a foot is described variously as iambic (˘ ) trochaic ( ˘) anapestic (˘˘ ) dactylic (˘˘). The prefix for the meter denotes the number of repetitions (monometer, dimeter, tri- mester, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter, heptameter, octometer).
Poetic features of sonnet Conceitsyoking together of disparate concepts or images Metaphorexpression in which one kind of concept or activity is compared or applied to notably distinct kind of concept or activity (e.g. hes a fox)
Poetic Features Apostrophe- an address to someone or something that does not hear the address. The address may be to a person who is absent or deceased or it may be to something inanimate or personified Metonymyliteral term for one concept or action is used to denote closely related concept or action (e.g. crown)
Poetic features of sonnet Synecdochea part of concept or thing is used to denote the whole of concept or thing (40 head [of cattle]) Petrarchan conceitconceits (extended metaphors, usually about women, love, and beauty) used in love poems that were original when Petrarch used them but became cliché when used by later English writers
Things we see in the sonnet Organic forminternal form, structure, balance, and organization Conventions Stock charactersrecognizably conventional figures Stock responsesrecognizably conventional responses Stock situationsrecognizably conventional settings
Things we see in the sonnet AntitypeNew Testament correlatives to Old Testament Types BlazonPoetic technique in which individual (often woman) is imagined or portrayed by partitioning the body into specified metaphors; mock-heraldic descripton Bombastpretentious, verbose, and inflated diction that is notably inappropriate to the matter it signifies
More poetic genres Dramatic Monologuea lyric poem in which a single speaker (other than poet) addresses a distinct individual, who remains silent, in an identifiable situation to expose speakers character Lyric monologuesimilar to dramatic monologue; lyric monologue in which focus is on speakers own arguments rather than revealing speakers character
More poetic genres Idyllnarrative verse that relies upon pastoral techniques
Reading Poetry –Example from Paradise Lost do s av John asked whom to the prom Mary, the girl whom John asked to the prom, is a member of Key Club and Beta Club. subject verb do the Almighty Power [God] / Hurled him [Satan] down
Reading Poetry –Example from Paradise Lost "Him the almighty power Hurled headlong flaming from the ethereal sky With hideous ruin and combustion down To bottomless perdition, there to dwell In adamantine chains and penal fire, Who durst defy the omnipotent to arms."
Reading Poetry –Example from Paradise Lost "Him the almighty power Hurled headlong flaming from the ethereal sky With hideous ruin and combustion down To bottomless perdition, there to dwell In adamantine chains and penal fire, Who durst defy the omnipotent to arms. –Who? (Subject) The Almighty Power [God] –Did What? (verb) What did God do? Hurled –To whom? Him [Satan}, –Where? Down to the bottomless perdition –Why? [Satan did] defy the Omnipotent [God] to arms –When? (does not say)
Try asking the 6 Ws –Who? (Subject) The Almighty Power [God] –Did What? (verb) What did God do? Hurled –To whom? Him [Satan}, –Where? Down to the bottomless perdition –Why? [Satan did] defy the Omnipotent [God] to arms –When? (does not say)
Ask- –Under what condition? in adamantine [hard, inflexible] chains and penal [punishing] fire –How? Headlong [pitched him headfirst], flaming from the ethereal sky with hideous ruin and combustion
Epigrams by Ben Franklin There never was a good war nor a bad peace. Time is money. Love your neighbor, but dont pull down your hedges. God helps them that help themselves. Fish and visitors smell after three days. Dost thou love life? Then do not squander time, for that is the stuff lifes made of.
Epigram by Ben Franklin The Body of B. Franklin, Printer; Like the Cover of an old Book, Its Contents torn out, And stript of its Lettering and Gilding, Lies here, Food for Worms. But the work shall not be wholly lost:,
A Printers Epitaph (1728) cont. For it will as he believd appear once more, In a new and more perfect Edition Corrected and amended By the Author. He was born Jan. 6, Died 17
Francis Petrarch ( ) Great Italian poet Credited with creating sonnet Seeks to break from medieval learning and customs Writes on cusp of modernity Writes of desire for elusive woman dubbed Laura in Rime Sparse
Francis Petrarch ( ) Humanistic training Modern sense of alienation in world Documents diverse effects of his powerful love for Laura Struggles to reconcile earthly and spiritual love
Francis Petrarch ( ) Sonnets have confessional tone Adopts poetic conventions of Apollo pursuing Daphne Internal male poet revealed through physical descriptions of external female Petrarchan style becomes imitated and parodied by English sonneteers
Petrarch, Sonnet 1 Addresses reader and prospective reader Poet seeking pity not pardon Ashamed to have received so much publicity Result of shame
Petrarch, Sonnet #3 Taken by Laura on anniversary of Christs death Didnt think he needed to protect himself from love on such a day Love finds him disarmed
Petrarch, Sonnet 61 Blesses time and place when 1 st saw Laura Blesses pain and wounds of love Blesses despair of lovel Blesses his own fame derived from sonnets
Petrarch, Sonnet 90 Laura used to have wild golden hair and bright eyes Laura used to walk as angeldivine on earth Would of love still bleeds even if such may no longer be true
Petrarch, Sonnet 333 To go to Lauras grave Poet sick of living Only business is to praise Laura Asks Laura may be by his side as he dies
Sir Philip Sidney Great English sonneteer Modifies sonnet Writes lengthy sonnet sequenceAstrophil and Stella Also known for prose romances and literary criticism
Sidney, Sonnet 1 English sonnet Opening sonnet of Astrophil and Stella Poet to relate his pain to give beloved pleasure Hoping shell read them His words want invention Struggling to write Muse tells him to look to his heart to write
Sidney, Sonnet 2 Variation of English sonnet rhyme scheme Wounded by love Forced to agree to loves decrees Tries to convince himself hes happy as he documents his misery
Sidney, sonnet 7 English sonnet Stellas eyes as natures chief works Questions why her eyes so bright Offers different explanations
Sidney, sonnet 39 English sonnet Calls on sleep Sleep as balm Sleep to calm his internal civil wars If he doesnt sleepStellas image to be livelier
Sidney, Sonnet 72 Variation on rhyme scheme of English sonnet Addresses desire as old companion Must depart belovedvirtue? Attempts to banish desirehow?
William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18 English sonnet Beloved more lovely than a summers day Beloved does not fade Endurance of poetry
Shakespeare, Sonnet 73 English sonnet Autumnal toneautumnal time of life Glow of fire on ashes of youth Fire consumed by source of nourishment
Shakespeare, Sonnet 116 English sonnet Attempt to define love/absence of love Does not alter Does not bend Ever-fixed mark Not times fool Lasts till edge of doom Witty epigrammatic closing couplet
Shakespeare, Sonnet 130 Anti-blazon Parodies Petrarchan conceits Coral more red than beloveds lips Snow far more white than beloveds breasts Wire as hair Does the poet still uphold his lady?
Edmund Spenser, Sonnet 1 Taken from Amoretti Spenserian sonnet –Slight variation on English sonnet –Continues one rhyme from each couplet Love/captivity Writes with tears Devoted poetpoems aimed to please beloved alone
Spenser, Sonnet 54 Spenserian sonnet Poets love idly sits Can make mirth or tragedy Beloved mocks his comedy and laughs at his tragedy Nothing can move this woman
Spenser, Sonnet 64 Spenserian sonnet Trying to kiss beloved Blazon of woman Beloveds smell better than smell of all these flowers
Christopher Marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love Not a sonnet Contemporary of Shakespeare, Sidney, and Spenser Invitation to love poemCarpe diem tropes Pastoral imagery Poet will adorn beloved with nature Dress organically Carpe diem trope dependent on pleasing beloved
John Milton, How Soon Hath Time Italian sonnet New sonnet subject matter No longer concerned with love, desire, and courtship Far more personal sonnets Religious implications Time stealing youth Perhaps he can deceive Time pays evenly
Milton, When I consider How My Light is Spent Italian sonnet Life half over Going blind Questions why he should continue How can he serve God? Told he need not see to serve God God happy when we bear our mild yokeor when we simply stand and wait
William Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge Italian sonnet Natural splendor surrounds him City wears beauty of nature like garment Yet city still asleepmight heart of human energy and potential latent
Wordsworth, London, 1802 Italian sonnet Employs trope of occasional poem England needs Milton now England in state of turmoil Claims English are selfish men Great admiration for energy and vision of Milton
Wordsworth, The world is too much with us Italian sonnet Have become too worldly Lost touch with nature Out of tune No longer moved by nature Turns to pagan alternatives for vivacious imagery of sestet
John Keats, On First Looking into Chapmans Homer Commemorates his reading of George Chapmans English translation of Homer Hes traveled plenty Hes read plenty Hes heard of Homer Everything changes when he reads Chapmans translation Images of astrology, conquest, exploration to describe experience of opening Chapmans translation