Presentation on theme: "Poetic Meter Iamb (Iambic) ̌ ʹ Trochee (Trochaic) ʹ ̌"— Presentation transcript:
1Poetic Meter Iamb (Iambic) ̌ ʹ Trochee (Trochaic) ʹ ̌ That time of year thou mayst in me behold---Sonnet 73 by William ShakespeareTrochee (Trochaic) ʹ ̌TY ger TY ger BURNning BRIGHT--"The Tyger," by William Blake
2Poetic MeterIamb (Iambic) ̌ ʹ That time of year thou mayst in me beholdSonnet 73 by William ShakespeareTrochee (Trochaic) ʹ ̌ TY ger TY ger BURNning BRIGHT "The Tyger," by William BlakeAnapest (Anapestic) ̌ ̌ ʹ The As SYRian came DOWN like the WOLF on the FOLD"The Destruction of Sennacherib“ Lord ByronDactyl (Dactylic) ʹ ̌ ̌This is the forest primeval, the murmuring pines and the hemlock Evangeline by Henry Wadsworth LongfellowSpondee (Spondaic) ʹ ʹ Pyrrhic ̌ ̌
3Metermeter: a poem’s pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Meter is generally described by the dominant foot of the poem and the number of times the foot is typically repeated in a line of the poem. For example, a poem that generally has an iambic foot (˘’) repeated five times (pentameter) in a line of poetry uses iambic pentameter (˘’/˘’/˘’/˘’/˘’). Blank verse is unrhymed iambic pentameter.
4Poetic line length Monometer One Foot Dimeter Two Feet Trimeter Three FeetTetrameter Four FeetPentameter Five FeetHexameter Six FeetHeptameter Seven FeetOctameter Eight Feet
5Stanzastanza: A group of lines, generally (but not always) separated by a blank line or space. Stanza types are often denoted by the number of lines in the stanza:couplet (2) triplet (3)quatrain (4) quintet (5)sestet (6) septet (7)octave(8)
6Sonnets 14 line lyric Single stanza Iambic pentameter line Intricate rhyme schemeCommon themes of love, desire, and deathDiversity of sonnet models:Italian (Petrarchan),English (Shakespearean), and Spenserian
7Italian/Petrarchan Sonnet Named for Petrarch2 main unitsOctave—eight line section—rhyming abbaabbaSestet—six line section—rhyming cdecde or variation (e.g. cdccdc)Octave presents problem or poses scenario that is answered or resolved in sestetBecomes imitated in English by Milton, Wordsworth, and Rossetti
8Sonnet 7: “ON HIS BEING ARRIVED AT THE AGE OF 23” by John Milton HOW soon hath time, the subtle thief of youth, a Stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year! b My hasting days fly on with full career, b But my late spring no bud or blossom sheweth. a Perhaps my semblance might deceive the truth, a That I to manhood am arrived so near, b And inward ripeness doth much less appear b That some more timely happy spirits indueth. a Yet be it less or more, or soon or slow, c It shall be still in strictest measure even d To that same lot however mean or high, e Toward which time leads me and the will of heaven. d All is, if I have grace to use it so, c As ever in my great taskmaster's eye. e
9Nature by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow As a fond mother, when the day is o'er, A Leads by the hand her little child to bed, B Half willing, half reluctant to be led, B And leave his broken playthings on the floor, A Still gazing at them through the open door, A Nor wholly reassured and comforted B By promises of others in their stead, B Which, though more splendid, may not please him more; A So Nature deals with us, and takes away C Our playthings one by one, and by the hand D Leads us to rest so gently, that we go E Scarce knowing if we wish to go or stay, C Being too full of sleep to understand D How the unknown transcends the what we know. E
10Nature explainedThe octave (the"vehicle" of the simile) establishes the images that are paralleled in the sestet (the "tenor" of the simile).In the opening octave, the image is that of a “fond mother” leading to bed a reluctant child, who gazes at his broken toys, wondering if he will like the things that will replace them as much as them.Longfellow's Nature, Journal article by Harold Aspiz; The Explicator, Vol. 42, 1983
11NatureIn the second octave, the speaker parallels the images in the tenor of the simile.So Nature [in age] deals with us, and takes away /Our playthings one by one, and … Leads us to rest [death]so gently, that we goScarce knowing if we wish to go or stay, Being too full of sleep to understand How the unknown [afterlife] transcends the what we know.
12English Sonnet Also known as Shakespearean sonnet Three quatrains (4 line poetic section) with a final coupletabab cdcd efef ggEach quatrain presents a view of a problemThe final couplet presents an epigrammatic thought or conclusion
13Sonnet 18 by William Shakespeare Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? A Thou art more lovely and more temperate: B Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, A And summer's lease hath all too short a date: B Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, C And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; D And every fair from fair sometime declines, C By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd; D But thy eternal summer shall not fade E Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; F Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, E When in eternal lines to time thou growest: F So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, G So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. G
14William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18 English sonnetBeloved more lovely than a summer’s dayBeloved does not fadeEndurance of poetry
15Sonnet 18 explainedIn the first quatrain, the speaker establishes the conceit: he is comparing his beloved to a summer’s day, focusing on temperance and endurance.
16Sonnet 18The second quatrain develops the concept that summer is not temperate or enduring; sometimes it is too hot and unpredictable, as “fair from fair declines by chance” (foul weather) or nature’s changing course (in the course of the seasons, summer leads to fall).
17Sonnet 18The third quatrain begins with “[b]ut,” shifting the focus to how the beloved is more temperate and eternal, stating that “for thy eternal summer shall not fade.”But thy eternal summer shall not fade E Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; F Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, E When in eternal lines to time thou growest: F
18Sonnet Great diversity of form and subject matter Initially about love and courtshipBecomes used to address religious, political, and personal issuesCan be presented as occasional poem—poems that memorialize or celebrate specific day or occasionCan be presented in sequence
19Sonnet 18 The final couplet asserts the main thought in an epigram: So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.In other words, as long as this sonnet survives, he has immortalized his beloved in verse.
20Stanzastanza: A group of lines, generally (but not always) separated by a blank line or space. Stanza types are often denoted by the number of lines in the stanza: couplet (2), triplet (3), quatrain, quintet, sestet, septet, octave) and by the rhyme scheme or other such characteristics.
21Spenserian Sonnet Minor variation of English sonnet Still thee quatrains and final coupletQuatrains linked by continuing rhymeabab bcbc cdcd ee
22Foot foot: a foot is described variously as iambic (˘’) trochaic ( ‘˘) anapestic (˘˘’)dactylic (’˘˘).The prefix for the meter denotes the number of repetitions (monometer, dimeter, tri-mester, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter, heptameter, octometer).
23Poetic features of sonnet Conceits—yoking together of disparate concepts or imagesMetaphor—expression in which one kind of concept or activity is compared or applied to notably distinct kind of concept or activity (e.g. he’s a fox)
24Poetic FeaturesApostrophe- an address to someone or something that does not hear the address. The address may be to a person who is absent or deceased or it may be to something inanimate or personifiedMetonymy—literal term for one concept or action is used to denote closely related concept or action (e.g. crown)
25Poetic features of sonnet Synecdoche—a part of concept or thing is used to denote the whole of concept or thing (40 head [of cattle])Petrarchan conceit—conceits (extended metaphors, usually about women, love, and beauty) used in love poems that were original when Petrarch used them but became cliché when used by later English writers
26Things we see in the sonnet Organic form—internal form, structure, balance, and organizationConventionsStock characters—recognizably conventional figuresStock responses—recognizably conventional responsesStock situations—recognizably conventional settings
27Things we see in the sonnet Antitype—New Testament correlatives to Old Testament TypesBlazon—Poetic technique in which individual (often woman) is imagined or portrayed by partitioning the body into specified metaphors; mock-heraldic descriptonBombast—pretentious, verbose, and inflated diction that is notably inappropriate to the matter it signifies
28More poetic genresDramatic Monologue—a lyric poem in which a single speaker (other than poet) addresses a distinct individual, who remains silent, in an identifiable situation to expose speaker’s characterLyric monologue—similar to dramatic monologue; lyric monologue in which focus is on speaker’s own arguments rather than revealing speakers character
29More poetic genresIdyll—narrative verse that relies upon pastoral techniques
30Reading PoetryExample from Paradise Lostdo s av John asked whom to the promMary, the girl whom John asked to the prom, is a member of Key Club and Beta Club.subject verb dothe Almighty Power [God] / Hurled him [Satan] down
31Reading Poetry Example from Paradise Lost "Him the almighty power Hurled headlong flaming from the ethereal sky With hideous ruin and combustion down To bottomless perdition, there to dwell In adamantine chains and penal fire, Who durst defy the omnipotent to arms."
32Reading Poetry Example from Paradise Lost "Him the almighty power Hurled headlong flaming from the ethereal sky With hideous ruin and combustion down To bottomless perdition, there to dwell In adamantine chains and penal fire, Who durst defy the omnipotent to arms.“Who? (Subject) The Almighty Power [God]Did What? (verb) What did God do? HurledTo whom? Him [Satan},Where? Down to the bottomless perditionWhy? [Satan did] defy the Omnipotent [God] to armsWhen? (does not say)
33Try asking the 6 Ws Who? (Subject) The Almighty Power [God] Did What? (verb) What did God do? HurledTo whom? Him [Satan},Where? Down to the bottomless perditionWhy? [Satan did] defy the Omnipotent [God] to armsWhen? (does not say)
34Ask-Under what condition?in adamantine [hard, inflexible] chains andpenal [punishing] fireHow?Headlong [pitched him headfirst], flaming from the ethereal sky with hideous ruin and combustion
35Epigrams by Ben Franklin There never was a good war nor a bad peace.Time is money.Love your neighbor, but don’t pull down your hedges.God helps them that help themselves.Fish and visitors smell after three days.Dost thou love life? Then do not squander time, for that is the stuff life’s made of.
36Epigram by Ben Franklin The Body of B. Franklin, Printer; Like the Cover of an old Book, Its Contents torn out, And stript of its Lettering and Gilding, Lies here, Food for Worms. But the work shall not be wholly lost: ,
37A Printer’s Epitaph (1728) cont. For it will as he believ’d appear once more, In a new and more perfect Edition Corrected and amended By the Author. He was born Jan. 6, Died 17—
38Francis Petrarch (1304-1374) Great Italian poet Credited with creating sonnetSeeks to break from medieval learning and customsWrites on cusp of modernityWrites of desire for elusive woman dubbed Laura in Rime Sparse
39Francis Petrarch (1304-1374) Humanistic training Modern sense of alienation in worldDocuments diverse effects of his powerful love for LauraStruggles to reconcile earthly and spiritual love
40Francis Petrarch (1304-1374) Sonnets have confessional tone Adopts poetic conventions of Apollo pursuing DaphneInternal male poet revealed through physical descriptions of external femalePetrarchan style becomes imitated and parodied by English sonneteers
41Petrarch, “Sonnet” 1 Addresses reader and prospective reader Poet seeking pity not pardonAshamed to have received so much publicityResult of shame
42Petrarch, Sonnet #3 “Taken” by Laura on anniversary of Christ’s death Didn’t think he needed to protect himself from love on such a dayLove finds him disarmed
43Petrarch, Sonnet 61 Blesses time and place when 1st saw Laura Blesses pain and wounds of loveBlesses despair of lovelBlesses his own fame derived from sonnets
44Petrarch, Sonnet 90Laura used to have wild golden hair and bright eyesLaura used to walk as angel—divine on earthWould of love still bleeds even if such may no longer be true
45Petrarch, Sonnet 333 To go to Laura’s grave Poet sick of living Only business is to praise LauraAsks Laura may be by his side as he dies
46Sir Philip Sidney Great English sonneteer Modifies sonnet Writes lengthy sonnet sequence—Astrophil and StellaAlso known for prose romances and literary criticism
47Sidney, Sonnet 1 English sonnet Opening sonnet of Astrophil and Stella Poet to relate his pain to give beloved pleasureHoping she’ll read themHis words want inventionStruggling to writeMuse tells him to look to his heart to write
48Sidney, Sonnet 2 Variation of English sonnet rhyme scheme Wounded by loveForced to agree to love’s decreesTries to convince himself he’s happy as he documents his misery
49Sidney, sonnet 7 English sonnet Stella’s eyes as nature’s chief works Questions why her eyes so brightOffers different explanations
50Sidney, sonnet 39 English sonnet Calls on sleep Sleep as balm Sleep to calm his internal civil warsIf he doesn’t sleep—Stella’s image to be livelier
51Sidney, Sonnet 72 Variation on rhyme scheme of English sonnet Addresses desire as old companionMust depart beloved—virtue?Attempts to banish desire—how?
52William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18 English sonnetBeloved more lovely than a summer’s dayBeloved does not fadeEndurance of poetry
53Shakespeare, Sonnet 73 English sonnet Autumnal tone—autumnal time of lifeGlow of fire on ashes of youthFire consumed by source of nourishment
54Shakespeare, Sonnet 116 English sonnet Attempt to define love/absence of loveDoes not alterDoes not bendEver-fixed markNot time’s foolLasts till edge of doomWitty epigrammatic closing couplet
55Shakespeare, Sonnet 130 Anti-blazon Parodies Petrarchan conceits Coral more red than beloved’s lipsSnow far more white than beloved’s breastsWire as hairDoes the poet still uphold his lady?
56Edmund Spenser, Sonnet 1 Taken from Amoretti Spenserian sonnet Slight variation on English sonnetContinues one rhyme from each coupletLove/captivityWrites with tearsDevoted poet—poems aimed to please beloved alone
57Spenser, Sonnet 54 Spenserian sonnet Poet’s love idly sits Can make mirth or tragedyBeloved mocks his comedy and laughs at his tragedyNothing can move this woman
58Spenser, Sonnet 64 Spenserian sonnet Trying to kiss beloved Blazon of womanBeloved’s smell better than smell of all these flowers
59Christopher Marlowe, “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love” Not a sonnetContemporary of Shakespeare, Sidney, and SpenserInvitation to love poem—Carpe diem tropesPastoral imageryPoet will adorn beloved with natureDress “organically”Carpe diem trope dependent on pleasing beloved
60John Milton, “How Soon Hath Time” Italian sonnetNew sonnet subject matterNo longer concerned with love, desire, and courtshipFar more personal sonnetsReligious implicationsTime stealing youthPerhaps he can deceiveTime pays evenly
61Milton, “When I consider How My Light is Spent” Italian sonnetLife half overGoing blindQuestions why he should continueHow can he serve God?Told he need not see to serve GodGod happy when we bear our mild yoke—or when we simply stand and wait
62William Wordsworth, “Composed upon Westminster Bridge” Italian sonnetNatural splendor surrounds himCity wears beauty of nature like garmentYet city still asleep—might heart of human energy and potential latent
63Wordsworth, “London, 1802” Italian sonnet Employs trope of occasional poemEngland needs Milton nowEngland in state of turmoilClaims English are selfish menGreat admiration for energy and vision of Milton
64Wordsworth, “The world is too much with us” Italian sonnetHave become too worldlyLost touch with natureOut of tuneNo longer moved by natureTurns to pagan alternatives for vivacious imagery of sestet
65John Keats, “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer” Commemorates his reading of George Chapman’s English translation of HomerHe’s traveled plentyHe’s read plentyHe’s heard of HomerEverything changes when he reads Chapman’s translationImages of astrology, conquest, exploration to describe experience of opening Chapman’s translation