Is Victimization Risk Time-Stable? Timing of repeat victimization Johnson, S.D., Bowers, K.J., and Hirschfield, A.F. (1997). New insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of repeat victimization. British Journal of Criminology, 37(2): 224-241.
Explaining Repeat Victimisation Boost Account Repeat victimisation is the work of a returning offender Optimal foraging Theory (Johnson & Bowers, 2004) - maximising benefit, minimising risk and keeping search time to a minimum- –repeat victimisation as an example of this –burglaries on the same street in short spaces of time would also be an example of this Consider what happens in the wake of a burglary –To what extent is risk to non-victimised homes shaped by an initial event? Johnson, S.D., and Bowers, K.J. (2004).The Stability of Space-Time Clusters of Burglary. British Journal of Criminology, 44(1), 55-65.
Communicability - inferred from closeness in space and time of manifestations of the disease in different people. An analogy with disease Communicability + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + area burglaries
Neighbour effects at the street level Bowers, K.J., and Johnson, S.D. (2005). Domestic burglary repeats and space-time clusters: the dimensions of risk. European Journal of Criminology, 2(1), 67-92. Johnson, S.D. et al. (2007). Space-time patterns of risk: A cross national assessment of residential burglary victimization. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 23: 201-219.
Patterns in detection data? For pairs of crimes: –Those that occur within 100m and 14 days of each other, 76% are cleared to the same offender –Those that occur within 100m and 112 days or more of each other, only 2% are cleared to the same offender Johnson, S.D., Summers, L., Pease, K. (2009). Offender as Forager? A Direct Test of the Boost Account of Victimization. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25,181-200.
If this area I didnt get caught in, I earned enough money to see me through the day then Id go back the following day to the same place. If I was in, say, that place and it came on top, and by it came on top I mean I was seen, I was confronted, I didnt feel right, Id move areas straight away … (P02) Summers, Johnson, & Rengert (2010) The Use of Maps in Offender Interviewing. In W. Bernasco (Ed.) Offenders on Offending. Willan.
The police certainly see a pattern, dont they, so even a weeks a bit too long. Basically two or three days is ideal, you just smash it and then move on … find somewhere else and then just repeat it, and then the next area … (RC02) Summers, Johnson, & Rengert (2010) The Use of Maps in Offender Interviewing. In W. Bernasco (Ed.) Offenders on Offending. Willan.
High Low Risk Forecasting - ProMap Bowers, K.J., Johnson, S.D., and Pease, K. (2004). Prospective Hot-spotting: The Future of Crime Mapping? The British J. of Criminology, 44, 641-658.
Event driven and Long-term factors (7- day forecast) Johnson, S.D., Bowers, K.J., Birks, D. and Pease, K. (2009). Predictive Mapping of Crime by ProMap: Accuracy, Units of Analysis and the Environmental Backcloth, Weisburd, D., W. Bernasco and G. Bruinsma (Eds) Putting Crime in its Place: Units of Analysis in Spatial Crime Research, New York: Springer.