Presentation on theme: "Roughly there will be between 35-40 multiple choice questions in the First Session. These questions will cover concepts covered throughout this course."— Presentation transcript:
Roughly there will be between multiple choice questions in the First Session. These questions will cover concepts covered throughout this course Second Session will be a performance event. This is generally a series of questions about experimental design. Strand 3: Characteristics and interactions of Living Organisms (36%-44%) Strand 4: Changes in Ecosystems and Interactions of Organisms with their Environments (22% - 27%) Strand 8: Scientific Inquiry (36%)
36-44% is Cells 22% - 27% is Ecology 36% is Inquiry Our units we covered this year: Scientific Method/Experiment Cell Parts and Function, Homeostasis Cellular Energy Cellular Reproduction DNA, Genetics and Heredity Ecology
Purpose and research- what is your question and is there already an answer out there Hypothesis – If…then… This should be a testable question Analysis – tables, charts, graphs Conclusion should support or refute the hypothesis and explain!
Your line graph will represent change over time IV – What you change DV – How you measure that change Constant – What stays the same Control – Test subject that isnt changed
Structure and Function
ProkaryotesEukaryotes PartsNo organelles, no nucleus Has organelles and a nucleus ExamplesBacteriaAnimals/Plants DNA for replicationSimple, forms a loose circle Complex, form chromosomes How to remember Pro = No brain (nucleus) You are eukaryotic, You have a brain
Cell Parts Animated What are the cell parts and what do they do? Cytoplasm/Cytosol Plasma membrane/cell membrane Nucleus* & nuclear membrane Nucleolus Mitchondria* or Chloroplast* Ribosomes* Smooth ER Rough ER Lysosomes Golgi bodies* Vacuoles
AnimalPlant Centrioles-- Small vacuolesCentral Vacuole- large --Chloroplast w/chlorophyll --Cell Wall
All energy comes from the sun – converted here on Earth The chemical equation of: Photosynthesis CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O and ATP (cellular energy)
In depth look at Photosynthesis In short… Light Reactions- on thylakoid membrane Photosystem II Photosystem I makes energy molecules Dark Reactions/The Calvin Cycle Products – Glucose (6-Carbon sugar) and O 2
In action Sum it up: Glycolysis - anaerobic, in the cytoplasm Krebs Cycle – aerobic, in the mitochondrial matrix, makes 4 ATP and uses 2ATP ETC – in the mitochondria, majority of ATP made here - Total of 38 ATP are produced but 2 ATP are used so there is a net gain of 36ATP made.
If no oxygen is present, the cycle reverts to anaerobic process of fermentation Two types we studied: Lactic Acid – produces a lactic acid; uses include dairy products like cheese and yogurt and what causes cramps in muscles Alcoholic – produces an alcohol; such as in wine/beer making and bread making (the CO 2 bubbles are what make the bread rise and the smell is from alcohol burning off)
The reproduction of cells.. They reproduce, often. Mitosis Meiosis Binary Fission
Interphase – most of cell life is here, time of growing, dividing and preparing for division. Prophase- chromosomes pair up Metaphase – chromosomes meet in middle Anaphase – Spindle fibers pull to ends of cell Telophase - Two cells are seen Cytokinesis- completed two cells
You find DNA in every cell of living things. All traits are passed on to offspring though genes Genes are locations on the chromosome Chromosomes are made of DNA that is tightly wound Karyotype is an assembled picture of all the chromosomes.
Homozgous – same alelles (TT or tt) Heterozygous – different alelles (Tt) Phenotype – physical appearance (Blue eyes) Genotype – genetic makeup (homo dom, Tt) Dominant – trait that shows (TT or Tt, brown eyes) Recessive – trait that shows only when no dominant is present (tt, blue eyes)
Proteins are found in our body as muscle, hair, enzymes, etc. Protein Synthesis: DNA -> RNA -> Protein Occurs in ribosome SO- DNA codes for RNA, RNA travels to ribosome where proteins are assembled