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Mark Bennett. Agenda Business Drivers Levels of Security Granularity Early vs. Late Binding – why it matters! Vendor round up Organization and Technical.

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Presentation on theme: "Mark Bennett. Agenda Business Drivers Levels of Security Granularity Early vs. Late Binding – why it matters! Vendor round up Organization and Technical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mark Bennett

2 Agenda Business Drivers Levels of Security Granularity Early vs. Late Binding – why it matters! Vendor round up Organization and Technical Challenges Patching Search Security Holes Trends Wrap Up / Q & A 2

3 Business Drivers (why you should care) 3

4 The ES Security Paradox As Search is deployed further and further into the Enterprise, the likelihood of having a security problem increases. 4

5 An Experiment You Should Try Youll be amazed what you can find on your own companys network. Try searching for: confidential highly confidential salaries performance review Excel spreadsheets (.xls) Access databases (.mdb) Also look for: Obscenities Racial and gender slurs 5

6 Shifts in Thinking From technical security to Business Viability IP, financial/SEC, regulatory, espionage, privacy Downsides include: Loss of competitive advantage, Degradation of company reputation, Impact of fraud and misuse, Decisions made on faulty information, Loss of access to critical information, Legal and contract liability, Regulatory fines, Public safety Forrester interview with Michael Rasmuseen From perimeter-focused to distributed Must protect some data internally Some systems must trust other security providers Burton Group 6 Enterprise Search Security Summer 2008

7 7 The Good:SSO, SAML, LDAP, Active Directory The Bad: Spidering, Org Boundaries The Ugly: Holes, Lack of Awareness Enterprise Search and Corporate Security The Current State of Affairs Enterprise Search Security Summer 2008

8 Levels of Security Granularity 8 Summary: Application / Collection Document Field / Sub-Document Sub-Field / Redaction

9 Granularity: Collection Level 9 Enterprise Search Security Summer 2008

10 Granularity: Document Level 10 Enterprise Search Security Summer 2008

11 Granularity: Field Level 11

12 Granularity: Sub-Field Redaction 12

13 Early Binding vs. Late Binding Security This choice affects performance and security infrastructure load 13

14 Defining Early vs. Late Binding Early-Binding Search engine Index includes ACL info Forrester: Caching security credentials Late-Binding ALL security work done at Search Time Forrester: Run-time access validation Hybrid: combines Early and Late Federated: leverage indigenous engines May require complex security mapping 14

15 Early vs. Late Binding Security 15

16 Early Binding Security (good!) 16

17 Late Binding (not so good) 17

18 Security Infrastructure Interaction Early Binding: Index Time 1. I have document what are the group IDs for it? (ACLs, etc) Early Binding: Search Time 1. I have Session ID , which User is that for? 2. I have User Jones, which groups is he in? 3. Transform the list of Group IDs into a Native Query Filter (with ACLs, etc) Late Binding: Search Time 1. I have Session ID , can I access document Yes or No? (repeat for every match) 18 No work needed at Index time Would appear to be a simpler/better design

19 Vendor Roundup Early vs. Late Binding 19

20 Vendor: FAST Search & Transfer Supports Early and Late binding Can use BOTH together Hybrid approach Best of both Worlds Gets along very well with Microsoft Active Directory FAST SAM = Security Access Module Based on Windows technology Can still use your own application level logic if you prefer 20 Enterprise Search Security Summer 2008

21 Vendor: Autonomy IDOL supports both Early and Late binding: Hybrid approach Best of both Worlds IDOL: Early Binding = Mapped IDOL: Late Binding = Unmapped Ultraseek Ultraseek is Late Binding only 21 Enterprise Search Security Summer 2008

22 22 Vendor: Google Appliance Google Appliance Late-Binding only spin is low latency – but actually a compromise... Could heavily load security infrastructure Does use some caching to lighten the load Caching decreases response time = good Caching increases latency (ACL changes) Enterprise Search Security Summer 2008

23 23 Vendor: Endeca Out of the box is Early Binding only Mitigated by low latency for document changes Provides accurate document counts by user General term is Record Filters Or can use joins to a fulltext ACL index RRN: Relational Record Navigation Late binding via custom code Enterprise Search Security Spring 2008

24 24 Vendor Lucene / Solr / Nutch Roll your own… Enterprise Search Security Spring 2008

25 Organizational and Technical Challenges They wont let me in! 25

26 Access Issues Spider may need Über Login Divisions worried about loss of control Worried about cached copies of data Several Approaches 1. Global Indexing – single Monolithic Search 2. Federated Search – leverage whats already there 3. Deferred Search 26 Enterprise Search Security Summer 2008

27 27

28 Federated Search 28

29 29 Deferred Search

30 Search Engine Security Holes 30

31 Check List Limit access to Disk files Use File / SSH restrictions Dont recommend total file encryption (exception for password files of course) Files to keep in mind Config files, Scripts LOGS Search Engine Indices In some search engines DOCUMENTS CAN BE RECONSTRUCTED from the Words Index 31 Enterprise Search Security Summer 2008

32 Other Gotchas Secure the Search Admin UI! May require other back end changes Secure the Search Analytics UI Can assign various roles as appropriate Secure TCP/IP traffic where appropriate Searches, spider, logging, admin UI Overkill in some cases Beware of Cached Data Can violate automatic retention policy 32 Enterprise Search Security Summer 2008

33 Editing Search Engine URLs Form-Based Filtering: Hackable View URLs DOCUMENT HIGHLIGHTING represents a potential Security Hole Results List Summaries Full-Document highlighting 33 Enterprise Search Security Summer 2008

34 Gotchas: Misc. Results Navigators show Meta Data Employees see Upcoming Layoff, etc. Detecting FAILED pages with status 200 Some Web Servers give back nicely formatted error screens or redirects, instead of an HTTP error code Desktop Search Holes Peer-to-peer may not be properly controlled May bypass Office file/doc passwords User Data: To Log or Not to Log? Potential liability with either choice Employee Privacy Concerns De Facto Notification Disclaimer: We are not lawyers 34

35 Wrapping Up… 35

36 36 Enterprise Search and Corporate Security Search & Security tied to SOX/HPPA Search Logs get Regulatory Interest Who Saw What, When Failure to Spot Trends becomes Negligence Distributed Credentials Management Not as big of a factor in the Enterprise More cooperation between e-commerce sites Government employees accessing other agencies The Near Future Enterprise Search Security Summer 2008

37 37 Enterprise Search and Corporate Security Run some test searches! Do you know your companys current policies? If confused, talk to your vendor, or get some professional help Call to Action! Enterprise Search Security Summer 2008

38 Resources 38 Search Dev Newsgroup: Newsletter & Whitepapers: Blog:

39 Finish Line Review & Questions General Info Mark Bennett 39


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