2LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of this unit, you should: Be able to carry out calculations to determine aircraft distance, speed and timeUnderstand the principles of vectors and the triangle of velocities to establish an aircraft’s track and ground speed
3LEARNING OUTCOMES Understand the principles of the 1 in 60 rule Understand the types of compass systems used for air navigation, how they work and their limitationsKnow the hazards that weather presents to aviation
4RECAPLatitude/Longitude grid divides the surface of the Earth into degrees and minutesOne minute of latitude represents one nautical mile (nm)1 degree of latitude (60 minutes) equals 60nm
5As a complete circle is 360° then 360 x 60 gives the circumference of the Earth as nm(approx statute miles).
6Lines of Longitude are sometimes referred to as MERIDIANS When recording your position – the line of Latitude must be given first.The starting point goes through Greenwich and is referred to as the:“Prime Meridian”This slide could be used as a check of understanding:Instructor asks what at lines of longitude sometimes referred to?When recording your position, which meridian is given first?Where is the starting point for these Meridian and what is first one called?
7If Sqn has these maps, then each cadet could have one to look at. Notice that on nautical maps orcharts there are no scales on the borders, so we have to use the nm scale which isshown along each meridian. Note also that the scale along the parallels is not usedbecause convergence shrinks the scale considerably in the British latitudes, andeven more near the Poles
8Finding Distance Between 2 Points Use a ruler and dividersIf you do not have any equipment, using the marks along the edge of any piece of paperInstructor to demonstrate using ruler and dividers – if they have them.Instructor to demonstrate using paperStudents can have a go.
9Change of LatitudeIf two places are on the same meridian then it is possible to calculate the distance between them rather than having to measure itFor example Torrejon airfield (near Madrid in Spain) is due south of RAF St Athan. These two latitudes are N40º29’ and N51º24’How would we calculate the distance between them?Allow students to answer – subtracting one from another.Calculate the answer
10To convert 10º 55’ into nautical miles: CalculationFirst Latitude:N 51º 24’Second Latitude:N 40º 29’Subtracting gives:10º 55’To convert 10º 55’ into nautical miles:10º multiply by 60 = 600Add the 55’ = 655 nmSubtracting one lat from another:In this example: 29’ to 60’ = 3160’ to 24 = = 55’Because we carry 1 across we now have 51 – 41 = 10
11Aircraft SpeedThe speed for cars, motorcycles and other land-based vehicles:Miles per hourFor aircraft, the speed is a measure of:Nautical Miles per hour – (Knots)
12Aircraft Speed We cannot use a speedometer to record aircraft speed. The aircraft flies through the air.We use an instrument called an Air Speed Indicator (ASI)
13Aircraft Speed ASI measures the dynamic air pressure A simplified ASI Dynamic Air Pressure is the pressure caused by forward motion of the aircraftA simplified ASI
14Aircraft SpeedIn forward flight the pressure above the diaphragm will consist of Dynamic + Static.Below, the pressure is just StaticThe two static pressures cancel out and the diaphragm will move due to the dynamic pressure.A simplified ASI
15Aircraft SpeedThe movement due to dynamic pressure is amplified and displayed on the instrument as Indicated Air Speed (IAS), reading in knots.
16CorrectionsThe reading on the ASI can be in error because of two errors, namely Pressure Error and Instrument Pressure.Instrument error is caused by poor manufacturing tolerances when the instrument was built.
17CorrectionsPressure Error previously known as position is caused by sensing incorrect values of static pressure due to the position of the static vents relative to the airflow around the aircraft.Both errors can be measured by testing the aircraft under controlled conditions and a calibration card with the combined errors is displayed in the cockpit next to the instrument.
18Calibrated Air SpeedOnce the two errors have been accounted for, we are left with Calibrated Air Speed (CAS), formerly known as Rectified Air Speed (RAS).IAS ± Pressure Error ± Instrument Error = CASThus an IAS of 118 kts with a correction on the calibration card of +2 kts would give aCAS of 120 kts.Added notes for Instructor:A pilot flies using Calibrated Air Speed because it represents the force of theairflow around the aircraft. The higher the aircraft flies, the less dense the air becomesand the faster the aircraft has to fly through the air to achieve the same force andtherefore the same CAS. A navigator however, needs to know the actual speed thatthe air craft is flying through the air so that he can compare it with his speed over theground and hence estimate the wind.
19True Air Speed (TAS)To obtain True Air Speed (TAS) from CAS you need to correct for air density changes caused by changes in temperature and altitude.This can be done by calculation or byNavigation Computer.
20TASIf you are flying at speeds greater than 300 kts, then you need to apply a correction for Compressibility Error, which is caused by air becoming compressed in the Pitot Tube.CAS ± Density Error + Compressibility Error = TAS
21Units of TimeTime is probably the only example of scientific measurement where every nation uses the same units.Everyone is familiar with days, hours and minutes; it is only necessary to ensure that you use hours when working with knots as this speed is nautical miles per hour.
22Units of TimeIn military and commercial aviation the 24 hour clock is used, set to Greenwich Mean Time GMT or Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) as it is now known.UTC can also be known as Zulu TimeSummer Time or Daylight Saving Time is always ignored.UTC can also be known as Zulu TimeThe above link will give reference to the variety of time zones:ZuluYankeeX-rayWhiskeyVictorUniformTangoSierraRomeo
23Calculation of Time of Flight (Still Air) If a car travels 120 miles at 60 mph, it will take 2 hours to complete the journey.This is calculated using the distance speed time formulae
24Provided 2 quantities are known From Speed Distance and TimeThe 3rd one can be calculated using thefollowing formula
26DISTANCE (D)TIME(T)SPEED (S)=DISTANCE (D)SPEED (S)TIME (T)=DISTANCE=SPEED (S) x TIME (T)
27How fast must we go to cover Example:How fast must we go to cover1500 nm in 5 hours?Quantities known are:DistanceTime
28Therefore we use the following formulae: DISTANCE (D)TIME(T)SPEED (S)=Therefore:31500 nmS (Knots)==3005 hours1
29Check of Understanding One degree of latitude represents:1 nm6 nm60 nm360 nm
30450 nm 525 nm 275 nm 325 nm Glasgow is due north of Plymouth (approximately on the same meridian).If Glasgow is latitude 55°50’ andPlymouth is latitude 50°25’what distance are the two places apart?:525 nm450 nm275 nm325 nm