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Fires and Human Behaviour - Studies of pre-movement, movement and exit choice Daniel Nilsson, Lund University.

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Presentation on theme: "Fires and Human Behaviour - Studies of pre-movement, movement and exit choice Daniel Nilsson, Lund University."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Fires and Human Behaviour - Studies of pre-movement, movement and exit choice Daniel Nilsson, Lund University

3 Our University Lund University

4 Our department Department of Fire Safety Engineering Fires and Human Behaviour Dr Håkan FrantzichDaniel Nilsson

5 Fires and Human Behaviour - Studies of pre-movement, movement and exit choice Daniel Nilsson, Lund University

6 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Outline General Pre-movement time Exit choice and movement Discussion

7 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move General Fires and human behaviour –Fire preparedness –Fire setting –Evacuation –Rescue operations

8 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move General When is a building safe for the occupants in case of fire? Available Safe Escape Time (ASET) > Safe Required Safe Escape Time (RSET)

9 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move General ASET - Computer simulations SmokeToxic gases Temperature Radiation

10 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move General RSET - simple model Detection & Alarm Pre-movementTravel Time

11 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move General RSET - simple model Detection & Alarm Pre-movementTravel Time

12 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move General RSET - simple model Detection & Alarm Pre-movement Travel Time

13 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move General RSET - simple model Detection & Alarm Pre-movement Travel Time

14 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move General

15 Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Pre-movement Hard to quantify Research - experiments –Marks&Spencer (Northern Ireland) –Occupancy (Canada) –Offices (Canada) –Cinema (Sweden - LU) –IKEA (Sweden - LU) –Nuclear power plant (Sweden - LU)

16 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Pre-movement Is the pre-movement time really that important? (Sime, Creed, Kimura & Powell, 1992) The most important finding of this research is the fact that the start up time (i.e. peoples reaction to an alarm) is as (if not more) important as the time it takes physically to reach an exit

17 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Pre-movement Is the pre-movement time really that important? (Proulx & Sime, 1991) If people take a long time to start to evacuate a setting the residual time to reach safety can be dramatically reduced.

18 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Pre-movement Nuclear power plant –Maintenance –Containment –Airlocks –Protective clothing

19 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Pre-movement Why don't people start to evacuate immediately? –Do not recognize the cue –False alarm / drill –Investment –Social influence

20 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Pre-movement Recommendations based on experiments Pre-movement time Type of builingType of alarm

21 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Pre-movement Social influence

22 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Pre-movement Latané & Darley, 1970 Experiment –Students, only male –Interview about urban life –Questionnaire –Smoke!!! –Alone, three subjects or one subject and two passive confederates

23 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Pre-movement Results

24 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Pre-movement Why does the student who is alone respond quicker? Social Influence Informational Normative

25 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Pre-movement New study of cinema experiments –A. Johansson, TUD –D. Nilsson, LU Two types of alarms –Ringing bell –Spoken message

26 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Pre-movement Results –Social influence more important for the ringing bell

27 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice After pre-movement - choose an exit and move to a safe place Emergency exits not always used Example - IKEA experiments –Used normal exit –Only some emergency exits

28 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice

29 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice Some exits were used

30 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice Affiliation theory –Sime –Move towards familiar exits and people –Summerland building complex

31 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice Learned irrelevance –McClintoc et al –Learn not to observe signs –Study with blue flashing lights

32 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice How can we get people to choose the exits we want? –Flashing lights –Instructive messages

33 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice Tunnel experiments –46 participants –One at a time –Smoke and acetic acid –Filmed with IR camera –Sound - fan & fire

34 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice Exit 1Exit 2Exit 3 Entrance Tunnel exit 35 meters

35 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice PillarsCar Exit 1Exit 2Exit 3

36 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice Measurement of the extinction coefficient Boiling acetic acid

37 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice Flashing lights Row of flashing lights Floor markings

38 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice

39 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice Results –Walls important –Way guidance systems not as effective as believed –Feeling more than vision

40 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice Experiments - spring 2006 Cinema –Flashing green lights –Instructive message Office –Flashing lights

41 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Exit choice Office - 9 floors, 400 persons

42 General Exit choice Discussion Pre-move Discussion General Pre-movement –Experiments (cinema, power plant, IKEA) –Social influence Exit choice –Tunnel experiment –Cinema and offices


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