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Pulse Timing parameters & Weighting Pulse timing parameters V.G.Wimalasena Principal School of Radiography.

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Presentation on theme: "Pulse Timing parameters & Weighting Pulse timing parameters V.G.Wimalasena Principal School of Radiography."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pulse Timing parameters & Weighting Pulse timing parameters V.G.Wimalasena Principal School of Radiography

2 Summary of the previous lesson The NMV (Net Magnetic Vector) is a vector quantity. It is created by two components at 90 0 to each other. i.e. magnetization in the longitudinal plane & magnetization in the transverse plane. Before resonance, there is full longitudinal magnetization parallel to B 0 After application of RF pulse, the NMV is flipped fully into the transverse plane (assuming sufficient energy is applied)

3 There is now full transverse magnetization and zero longitudinal magnetization. Once the RF pulse is removed, the NMV recovers. As this occurs, the longitudinal component of magnetization grows again, while the transverse magnetization decreases. As the received signal is related to the magnitude of the transverse component, the signal in the coil decays as relaxation takes place.

4 Pulse timing parameters The magnitude and timing of the RF pulses form the basis of MRI The two Pulse timing parameters are Pulse Repetition time - TR Pulse Repetition time - TR Echo time - TE Echo time - TE

5 Pulse sequence A very simplified pulse sequence is a combination of RF pulses, signals and intervening periods of recovery as shown. RF Pulse TR TE

6 A pulse sequence consists of several components. 1. The repetition time (TR): This is the time from the application of one RF pulse to the application of the next RF pulse and is measured in milliseconds (ms). The TR determines the amount of relaxation that is allowed to occur between the end of one RF pulse and the application of the next. Therefore TR determines the amount of T1 relaxation that has occurred

7 2. The Echo time (TE) (TE) is the time from the application of the RF pulse to the Peak of the signal induced in the coil and is also measured in ms. The TE determines how much decay of transverse magnetization is allowed to occur before the signal is read. Therefore TE controls the amount of T2 relaxation that has occurred

8 Contrast of MR images The application of RF pulses at certain repetition times (TR) and The receiving of signals at pre-defined echo times (TE) produces contrast in MRI images.

9 Image Weighting & Contrast Contrast? T1 weighted ? T2 weighted ? Proton density ?

10 Contrast ? oAn image has contrast if there are areas of high signal (white on the image) as well as areas of low signal ( dark on the image). oSome areas have an intermediate signal (shades of grey in-between white and black))

11 The NMV & signal in different tissues The NMV can be separated into the individual vectors of the tissues such as CSF, fat and muscle. The NMV can be separated into the individual vectors of the tissues such as CSF, fat and muscle. A tissue has a high signal if it has a large transverse component of magnetization. A tissue has a high signal if it has a large transverse component of magnetization. The coil receives a high signal resulting bright area on the image The coil receives a high signal resulting bright area on the image A tissue has a low signal if it has a small transverse component of magnetization A tissue has a low signal if it has a small transverse component of magnetization

12 If there is a small component of transverse magnetization the amplitude of the signal received by the coil is small resulting in a dark area on the image. If there is a small component of transverse magnetization the amplitude of the signal received by the coil is small resulting in a dark area on the image. Generally, the two extremes of contrast in MRI are fat and water. Generally, the two extremes of contrast in MRI are fat and water. Fat & Water appear differently in MR images Fat & Water appear differently in MR images

13 Fat & Water oThe Larmor frequency of hydrogen in water is higher than hydrogen in fat. oHydrogen in fat recovers more rapidly along the longitudinal axis than water and loses transverse magnetization faster than In water. oSubsequently fat and water appear differently in MR images

14 Fat & Water B0B0 Fat vector Water vector Transverse components of magnetization Longitudinal components

15 Contrast mechanisms Intrinsic factors Images obtain contrast mainly through the mechanisms of : T1 recovery T1 recovery T2 decay T2 decay Proton or spin density. (proton density of a tissue is the number of protons per unit volume of that tissue) Proton or spin density. (proton density of a tissue is the number of protons per unit volume of that tissue)

16 T1 & T2 of Fat & Water FatWater T1shortlong T2Short (= 80ms) Long (= 200ms)

17 Recovery time constant -T1 T1 is the time it takes 63% of the longitudinal magnetization to recover in the tissue Time 100% 63% Signal intensity T1

18 Time constant of decay – T2 T2 is the time it takes 63% of the transverse magnetization to be lost 100% 37% T2 Time Signal intensity

19 Demonstration of T1 contrast B0B0 1 st RF pulse Longitudinal components Fat Water Recovery Longitudinal components flipped by next RF pulse Transverse components Fat water

20 T1 contrast / weighted image As the T1 time of fat is shorter than water, the fat vector realigns with B 0 faster than that of water. As the T1 time of fat is shorter than water, the fat vector realigns with B 0 faster than that of water. The longitudinal component of magnetization of fat is therefore longer than water. The longitudinal component of magnetization of fat is therefore longer than water. After a certain TR the next RF pulse is applied. After a certain TR the next RF pulse is applied.

21 The RF excitation pulse flips the longitudinal components of magnetization of both fat and water into the transverse plane. The RF excitation pulse flips the longitudinal components of magnetization of both fat and water into the transverse plane. As there is more longitudinal magnetization in fat before the RF pulse, there is more transverse magnetization in fat after RF pulse. As there is more longitudinal magnetization in fat before the RF pulse, there is more transverse magnetization in fat after RF pulse. Fat therefore has a high signal and appears bright on a T1 contrast image Fat therefore has a high signal and appears bright on a T1 contrast image

22 As there is less longitudinal magnetization in water before the RF pulse, there is less transverse magnetization in water after the RF pulse. Water therefore has a low signal and appears dark on a T1 contrast image. Such images are called T1 weighted images.

23 Demonstration of T1 contrast B0B0 1 st RF pulse Longitudinal components Fat Water Recovery Longitudinal components flipped by next RF pulse Transverse components Fat water

24 Weighting? To demonstrate either; T1, proton density or T2 contrast, T1, proton density or T2 contrast, Specific values of TR and TE are selected for a given pulse sequence. Specific values of TR and TE are selected for a given pulse sequence. The selection of appropriate TR and TE weights an image so that one contrast mechanism predominates over the other two.

25 T1 weighting The contrast depends predominantly on the differences in the T1 times between fat and water and therefore all the tissues with intermediate signal as well Because TR controls how far each vector can recover before it is excited by the next RF pulse, to achieve T1 weighting; TR must be short enough so that neither fat no water has sufficient time to fully return to B 0

26 T1 weighting TR controls the amount of T1weighting For T1 weighting TR must be short Signal intensity Contrast between fat & water Short T1 fat Long T1 water Short TR Long TR TR (ms) No contrast between fat & water

27 T2 contrast / weighted image The T2 time of fat is shorter than that of water Therefore the transverse component of magnetization of fat decays faster. The magnitude of transverse component of magnetization of water is large. Water has a high signal and appears bright on a T2 contrast image.

28 However, the magnitude of transverse magnetization in fat is small. Fat therefore has a low signal, and appears dark on a T2 contrast image. Such images are called T2 weighted images

29 Production of T2 contrast FatWaterDecay of transverse magnetization Large amount of dephasing small amount of dephasing Small transverse component Large transverse component Short T2 Long T2 Produces low signalProduces high signal

30 T2 weighting Contrast predominately depends on the differences in the T2 times between fat and water (and therefore all the tissues with intermediate signal as well) The TE controls the amount of T2 decay that is allowed to occur before the signal is received. to achieve T2 weighting, the TE must be long enough to give both fat and water time to decay to achieve T2 weighting, the TE must be long enough to give both fat and water time to decay

31 T2 weighting TE controls the amount of T2 weighting For T2 weighting TE must be long Signal intensity Small contrast difference between fat and water Large contrast difference between fat and water Long T2 water Short T2 fat Short TE TE (ms) Long TE

32 Proton density contrast Proton density contrast refers to the differences in signal intensity between tissues which are a consequence of their relative number of protons per unit volume. To produce this contrast, the transverse component of magnetization must reflect these differences. Tissues with high proton density (e.g. brain) have a large transverse component of magnetization and therefore a high signal

33 They appear brighter on a proton density contrast image Tissues with a low proton density (e.g. cortical bone) have a small transverse component of magnetization and therefore a low signal. They appear dark on a proton density contrast image. Proton density contrast is always present and depends on the patient and the area being examined. It is the basic MRI contrast

34 Proton density weighting The difference in the numbers of protons per unit volume in the patient is the main determining factor in forming image contrast Proton density is always present to some extent To obtain proton density weighting T1 & T2 contrast must be diminished Long TR will diminish T1 and short TE will diminish T2

35 Summary For T1 weighting To exaggerate T1 TR is SHORT To exaggerate T1 TR is SHORT To diminish T2 TE is SHORT To diminish T2 TE is SHORT For T2 weighting To exaggerate T2 TE is LONG To exaggerate T2 TE is LONG To diminish T1 TR is LONG To diminish T1 TR is LONG For proton density weighting To diminish T2 TE is SHORT To diminish T2 TE is SHORT To diminish T1 TR is LONG To diminish T1 TR is LONG

36 Typical values of TR and TE Long TR 2000 ms Short TR 250 – 750 ms Long TE 60 ms + Short TE 20 – 25 ms

37 Summary…. Fat has a short T1 and T2 time Water has a long T1 and T2 time To produce high signal, there must be a large component of magnetization in the transverse plane to induce a large signal in the coil To produce a low signal, there must be a small component of magnetization in the transverse plane to induce a small signal in the coil.

38 Summary … T1 weighted images are characterized by bright fat and dark water. T2 weighted images are characterized by bright water and dark fat. Proton density weighted images are characterized by Areas with high proton density are bright Areas with high proton density are bright Areas with low proton density are dark Areas with low proton density are dark

39 T1 weighted Image

40 T2 weighted image

41 Proton Density Weighted image

42 End


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