3 What Is Production Planning? Production planning is concerned with deciding in advancewhat is to be produced,when to be produced,where to be produced andhow to be produced. In the most efficient way.
4 What Is Production Planning? It involves :looking ahead,anticipating bottlenecks andidentifying the steps necessary to ensure smooth, uninterrupted flow of production. It determines the requirements for:materials,machinery andman-power;Minimize the surprises as much as possible
5 Process of Production Planning Get a List of all items that goes into a product(Master list / BOM)Get a List of their Development lead times and Supply lead times.Identify constraints and bottlenecks based on those lead timesHow can they be removed, if possible.Identify the wasted capacities due to those constraints / bottlenecksCalculate the costs of delays and wastages versus cost of bottlenecks removals, where possible.Make an informed decision.
6 What is Control?The ability to see the actual and potential deviations from the original plan, and react accordingly to either get them back on track or alter the plan accordingly.With the help of:Reports, meetings, discussionsManagement by walking around
7 Tools & Factors to be understood before planning starts
8 Industrial Engineering in Textile & Apparel Industry Industrial Engineering is involved in production and distribution of products and services in an industrial setup.Its concepts are applied to all factors of production, including Humans.It Studies, measures and improves the way of doing things – (The continuous improvement way)Its objective is to Design and install a better way of doing things – (Leapfrogging into new technologies)If you cannot measure it, you cannot manage it,If you cannot manage it, you cannot improve it.
9 Industrial Engineering- Concepts Time and Motion StudyStandard Minute Value - SMVLine Balancing and Layout EfficiencyThe concept of Learning Curve
10 Motion & Time StudyMotion and time study can reduce and control costs, improve working conditions and environment, and motivate people.The basic purpose is to improve the work and to reduce waste.1. Motion analysis techniques2. Time study techniques3. Uses of time standards.Manufacturing management and engineering students are being prepared to design work stations, develop efficient and effective work methods, establish time standards, balance assembly lines, estimate labor costs, develop effective tooling, select proper equipment, and layout manufacturing facilities.However, the most important thing is to learn how to train production workers in these skills and techniques so they can become motion and time conscious
11 Motion study offers a great potential for savings in any area of human effort. We can reduce the cost by combining elements of one task with elements of another.Motion study uses the principles of motion economy to develop work stations that are friendly to the human body and efficient in their operation.Motion study must consider the operator’s safetyTime study can reduce cost significantly well. Time standards are goals to strive for. In organizations that operate without time standards, % performance is typical.When time standards are set, performance improves to an average of 70-75%. This is a 20-40% increase in performance.
12 Motion and time study is considered to be the backbone of industrial engineering, industrial technology, and industrial management programs because the information that time studies generate affects so many other areas, including the following:1. Cost estimating2. Production and inventory control3. Plant layout4. Materials and processes5. Quality6. SafetyMotion study comes first before the setting of time standards. Motion study is a detailed analysis of the work method in an effort to improve it.
13 Motion studies are used to Develop the best work method.Develop motion consciousness on the part of all employeesDevelop economical and efficient tools, fixtures, & production aids.Assist in the selection of new machines and equipment.Train new employees in the preferred method.Reduce effort and cost.
14 Motion study is design, while time study is measurement. Once the importance of motion and time study is understood and accepted, the techniques of motion and time study are introduced.Flow diagramsMulti activity chartsOperation chartsFlow process chartsProcess chartsOperations analysis chartWork station designMotion economyFlow patternsPredetermined time standards system (PTSS).
15 What is a Motion Study?Motion studies are performed to eliminate waste. Before any improvement in quality or quantity of output, any study of operations time, any scheduling of work or balancing of workload or any calculation of standard time, a study of the current and proposed method is required.Studies of overall factory flow or process, called macromotion studies, and then additional studies of detail or operations, called micromotion studies, should be completed for a project.
16 Macromotion StudyAny process can be studied by dividing it into process activity. Although each activity is different, depending on the product, there are five classes of activities that are included in all processes. Savings, may be found in the process by reorganizing activities.These activities found in every sequence of processes areOperations Changes in the properties of the productTransportations Changes in the location of the productInspection Confirmation that change fits to specificationDelay Wait for start of operation, transportation, or inspectionStorage Wait until neededWhen the process is first studied, each activity is recorded and arranged into one of the five classes. All observed activities are recorded, and activities not done are not recorded. The purpose of each activity should be studied.
17 Typically, the questions Who. What. Where. When. Why. and How Typically, the questions Who? What? Where? When? Why? and How? must be answered. Next, each event is observed in the following sequence:Can the activity be eliminated? If not,Can the activity be combined and done with another activity? If not,Can the activity be rearranged so occur in the sequence at an easier time? If not.Can the activity be simplified with shorter distances, mechanical assist, or reduced complexity?Once these questions are asked and the improvement sequence is defined, it is necessary to draw a chart or diagram that shows the motion improvements.Process Flow Plan A plan-view plant layout with activities overlaidProcess Operations Chart The sequence of serial and parallel operationsProcess Chart All serial activities on a preprinted formFlow Process Chart All serial and parallel activities on a single pageWork Cell Load Chart A plan view with repetitive operationsRoute Sheet A planning tool for scheduling operations
18 Micromotion StudyConsiderable wasted motion and idle time can occur within an operation. This time can’t be found with macromotion studies because is usually within one process operation. The improvement is gained from reducing the operation cycle time.
19 What is a Time Standard?The definition of a time standard is “the time required to produce a product at a work station with the following three conditions:(1) a qualified, well-trained operator,(2) working at a normal pace,(3) doing a specific task.”These three conditions are essential to the understanding of time study.It comprises of the actual work cycle’s time, along with allowances for personal fatigue, machine delay, bundling handling (if any), etc.The time standard is one of the most important pieces of information produced in the manufacturing department. It is used to develop answers for the following problems:
20 Determining the number of production people to employ Determining the number of machine tools to buyDetermining manufacturing costs and selling pricesScheduling the machines, operations, and people to do the job and deliver on timeDetermining the assembly line balance.Determine individual worker performance and identifying operations that are having problems so the problems can be correctedPaying incentive wages for outstanding team or individual performanceEvaluating cost reduction ideas and picking the most economical method based on cost analysis, not opinionEvaluating new equipment purchases to justify their expenseDeveloping operation personnel budgets to measure management performance.
21 For example, how many direct labor employees do we need for a multi-product plant? Per day, 1,132 hours of direct labor are needed. Each employee will work 8 hours; therefore,1,132 hours= employees.8 hours/employeeWe will hire 142 employees, and management will be evaluated on the performance of these 142 employees. Without time standards, how many employees would you hire?
22 Line Balancing and Layout Efficiency An ideal production line is one where there is no time wastage and no bottlenecks.A balanced production line is one where production from all the operations is completely balanced and there is no bottleneck.Line Layout efficiency is the average percentage of utilization of each machine / worker in the line.
23 Line Balancing Template PM line balancing class.xlsx
24 Why is it important in Production planning? It will tell you how many garments can and should be produced by a line,How a little or major change in the line composition or job composition can change the efficiency and thus the production targets.Lets you make tradeoffs if a certain machine or some other resource is shifted to another line where the benefit would be more then the loss here.
25 Concept of Learning Curve The time taken to complete a job reduces by a fixed percentage every time the number of repetitions is doubled and redoubled.The percentage depends on the required skill level, and the level of motion needed to complete that job.
26 But are we planning for 1 style in one line only, or for the whole factory with multiple lines and for a single style or a series of styles with different work contents?
27 Other resources to consider while planning are …. Machine PlanningManpower planning
28 To know if we have the correct # of required machines for the line Machine PlanningTo know if we have the correct # of required machines for the lineAre they in good / workable conditionDo they have the required parts and attachments for this particular styleAre they planned in parallel in some other lines as well for the same / overlapping dates.
29 Line wise & Floor wise Machine planning.xls Do we have any types of machines in excess during those daysCan we use of these excess machines in place of those which we are short ofBy redesign the some operationsBy making smaller linesBy merging more than one lines to make use of idle machinesLine wise & Floor wise Machine planning.xls
30 Manpower Planning - Why? Overheads of extra machines being usedExtra load on MechanicsExtra load on SupervisorsExtra load on Administration dept, Canteen, Conveyance.When more people are there than the work requires, they tend to come in each other’s wayIf more than one person is assigned the same job, no one remains responsible for it.Steps to ensure responsibilities are completedAssign the task clearlyMake them responsible
31 Manpower Planning- Skill Matrix for workers Skill Matrix is the inventory sheet of the skills available in the organization.It plays a very dominant role in getting above average production from average workers.It allows you to remove a major portion of bottlenecks from the productionThus allows to get the maximum benefits from the resources availablePM line balancing class.xlsx
32 Control systemsReporting SystemsCritical Path MethodInputs planning
33 Reporting systemsStatus reports – Which gives you the current situation reportAction reports – The Hot Potato reports - Which gives you the current situation report and also compels you to take the appropriate action.The focus should always be to get an analysis of the situation instead of just a status.Should always be of one page, so that you don’t have to keep referring to different reports to get your desired information.Should always be designed with the inputs you require for your production planning and the impact on the plan.
34 Critical Path Method How long will the entire project take to complete In an assembly line, the production is as fast as its slowest operation.How long will the entire project take to completeWhich activities determine total project timeWhich activities should be the main focus for on-time completion of a shipment or project, and in which some tolerance is possibleThe reporting systems should always recognize thecritical operations in a garment, and the reports shouldalways show the status of these operations orbottlenecks on them.
35 Inputs PlanningDifferent raw materials have different lead times, approval processes and risks involved.Some of them are also dependent on another item, and therefore cannot be ordered in advance.Converting Strategic plans to actions:The best plan is only good intentions unless itdegenerates into work – Peter Druck
36 Converting Strategic plans to actions The best plan is only good intentions unless It degenerates into work – Peter Drucker