Production planning is concerned with deciding in advance what is to be produced, when to be produced, where to be produced and how to be produced. In the most efficient way. What Is Production Planning?
It involves : looking ahead, anticipating bottlenecks and identifying the steps necessary to ensure smooth, uninterrupted flow of production. It determines the requirements for: materials, machinery and man-power; Minimize the surprises as much as possible What Is Production Planning?
Process of Production Planning Get a List of all items that goes into a product (Master list / BOM) Get a List of their Development lead times and Supply lead times. Identify constraints and bottlenecks based on those lead times How can they be removed, if possible. Identify the wasted capacities due to those constraints / bottlenecks Calculate the costs of delays and wastages versus cost of bottlenecks removals, where possible. Make an informed decision.
The ability to see the actual and potential deviations from the original plan, and react accordingly to either get them back on track or alter the plan accordingly. With the help of: Reports, meetings, discussions Management by walking around What is Control?
Tools & Factors to be understood before planning starts
Industrial Engineering is involved in production and distribution of products and services in an industrial setup. Its concepts are applied to all factors of production, including Humans. It Studies, measures and improves the way of doing things – (The continuous improvement way) Its objective is to Design and install a better way of doing things – (Leapfrogging into new technologies) If you cannot measure it, you cannot manage it, If you cannot manage it, you cannot improve it. Industrial Engineering in Textile & Apparel Industry
Time and Motion Study Standard Minute Value - SMV Line Balancing and Layout Efficiency The concept of Learning Curve Industrial Engineering- Concepts
Motion and time study can reduce and control costs, improve working conditions and environment, and motivate people. The basic purpose is to improve the work and to reduce waste. 1. Motion analysis techniques 2. Time study techniques 3. Uses of time standards. Manufacturing management and engineering students are being prepared to design work stations, develop efficient and effective work methods, establish time standards, balance assembly lines, estimate labor costs, develop effective tooling, select proper equipment, and layout manufacturing facilities. However, the most important thing is to learn how to train production workers in these skills and techniques so they can become motion and time conscious Motion & Time Study
Motion study offers a great potential for savings in any area of human effort. We can reduce the cost by combining elements of one task with elements of another. Motion study uses the principles of motion economy to develop work stations that are friendly to the human body and efficient in their operation. Motion study must consider the operators safety Time study can reduce cost significantly well. Time standards are goals to strive for. In organizations that operate without time standards, 50 - 60% performance is typical. When time standards are set, performance improves to an average of 70-75%. This is a 20-40% increase in performance.
Motion and time study is considered to be the backbone of industrial engineering, industrial technology, and industrial management programs because the information that time studies generate affects so many other areas, including the following: 1. Cost estimating 2. Production and inventory control 3. Plant layout 4. Materials and processes 5. Quality 6. Safety Motion study comes first before the setting of time standards. Motion study is a detailed analysis of the work method in an effort to improve it.
Motion studies are used to –Develop the best work method. –Develop motion consciousness on the part of all employees –Develop economical and efficient tools, fixtures, & production aids. –Assist in the selection of new machines and equipment. –Train new employees in the preferred method. –Reduce effort and cost.
Motion study is design, while time study is measurement. Once the importance of motion and time study is understood and accepted, the techniques of motion and time study are introduced. Flow diagrams Multi activity charts Operation charts Flow process charts Process charts Operations analysis chart Work station design Motion economy Flow patterns Predetermined time standards system (PTSS).
Motion studies are performed to eliminate waste. Before any improvement in quality or quantity of output, any study of operations time, any scheduling of work or balancing of workload or any calculation of standard time, a study of the current and proposed method is required. Studies of overall factory flow or process, called macromotion studies, and then additional studies of detail or operations, called micromotion studies, should be completed for a project. What is a Motion Study?
Any process can be studied by dividing it into process activity. Although each activity is different, depending on the product, there are five classes of activities that are included in all processes. Savings, may be found in the process by reorganizing activities. These activities found in every sequence of processes are Operations Changes in the properties of the product Transportations Changes in the location of the product Inspection Confirmation that change fits to specification Delay Wait for start of operation, transportation, or inspection Storage Wait until needed When the process is first studied, each activity is recorded and arranged into one of the five classes. All observed activities are recorded, and activities not done are not recorded. The purpose of each activity should be studied. Macromotion Study
Typically, the questions Who? What? Where? When? Why? and How? must be answered. Next, each event is observed in the following sequence: Can the activity be eliminated? If not, Can the activity be combined and done with another activity? If not, Can the activity be rearranged so occur in the sequence at an easier time? If not. Can the activity be simplified with shorter distances, mechanical assist, or reduced complexity? Once these questions are asked and the improvement sequence is defined, it is necessary to draw a chart or diagram that shows the motion improvements. Process Flow Plan A plan-view plant layout with activities overlaid Process Operations Chart The sequence of serial and parallel operations Process Chart All serial activities on a preprinted form Flow Process Chart All serial and parallel activities on a single page Work Cell Load Chart A plan view with repetitive operations Route Sheet A planning tool for scheduling operation s
Considerable wasted motion and idle time can occur within an operation. This time cant be found with macromotion studies because is usually within one process operation. The improvement is gained from reducing the operation cycle time. Micromotion Study
The definition of a time standard is the time required to produce a product at a work station with the following three conditions: (1) a qualified, well-trained operator, (2) working at a normal pace, (3) doing a specific task. These three conditions are essential to the understanding of time study. It comprises of the actual work cycles time, along with allowances for personal fatigue, machine delay, bundling handling (if any), etc. The time standard is one of the most important pieces of information produced in the manufacturing department. It is used to develop answers for the following problems: What is a Time Standard?
–Determining the number of production people to employ –Determining the number of machine tools to buy –Determining manufacturing costs and selling prices –Scheduling the machines, operations, and people to do the job and deliver on time –Determining the assembly line balance. –Determine individual worker performance and identifying operations that are having problems so the problems can be corrected –Paying incentive wages for outstanding team or individual performance –Evaluating cost reduction ideas and picking the most economical method based on cost analysis, not opinion –Evaluating new equipment purchases to justify their expense –Developing operation personnel budgets to measure management performance.
For example, how many direct labor employees do we need for a multi-product plant? Per day, 1,132 hours of direct labor are needed. Each employee will work 8 hours; therefore, 1,132 hours ----------------------- = 141.5 employees. 8 hours/employee We will hire 142 employees, and management will be evaluated on the performance of these 142 employees. Without time standards, how many employees would you hire?
An ideal production line is one where there is no time wastage and no bottlenecks. A balanced production line is one where production from all the operations is completely balanced and there is no bottleneck. Line Layout efficiency is the average percentage of utilization of each machine / worker in the line. Line Balancing and Layout Efficienc y
PM line balancing class.xlsx Line Balancing Template
It will tell you how many garments can and should be produced by a line, How a little or major change in the line composition or job composition can change the efficiency and thus the production targets. Lets you make tradeoffs if a certain machine or some other resource is shifted to another line where the benefit would be more then the loss here. Why is it important in Production planning?
The time taken to complete a job reduces by a fixed percentage every time the number of repetitions is doubled and redoubled. The percentage depends on the required skill level, and the level of motion needed to complete that job. Concept of Learning Curve
But are we planning for 1 style in one line only, or for the whole factory with multiple lines and for a single style or a series of styles with different work contents?
Machine Planning Manpower planning Other resources to consider while planning are ….
Machine Planning To know if we have the correct # of required machines for the line Are they in good / workable condition Do they have the required parts and attachments for this particular style Are they planned in parallel in some other lines as well for the same / overlapping dates.
Do we have any types of machines in excess during those days Can we use of these excess machines in place of those which we are short of By redesign the some operations –By making smaller lines –By merging more than one lines to make use of idle machines Line wise & Floor wise Machine planning.xls
Overheads of extra machines being used Extra load on Mechanics Extra load on Supervisors Extra load on Administration dept, Canteen, Conveyance. When more people are there than the work requires, they tend to come in each others way If more than one person is assigned the same job, no one remains responsible for it. Steps to ensure responsibilities are completed Assign the task clearly Make them responsible Manpower Planning - Why?
Skill Matrix is the inventory sheet of the skills available in the organization. It plays a very dominant role in getting above average production from average workers. It allows you to remove a major portion of bottlenecks from the production Thus allows to get the maximum benefits from the resources available PM line balancing class.xlsx Manpower Planning- Skill Matrix for workers
Reporting Systems Critical Path Method Inputs planning Control systems
Status reports – Which gives you the current situation report Action reports – The Hot Potato reports - Which gives you the current situation report and also compels you to take the appropriate action. The focus should always be to get an analysis of the situation instead of just a status. Should always be of one page, so that you dont have to keep referring to different reports to get your desired information. Should always be designed with the inputs you require for your production planning and the impact on the plan. Reporting systems
In an assembly line, the production is as fast as its slowest operation. How long will the entire project take to complete Which activities determine total project time Which activities should be the main focus for on-time completion of a shipment or project, and in which some tolerance is possible The reporting systems should always recognize the critical operations in a garment, and the reports should always show the status of these operations or bottlenecks on them. Critical Path Method
Different raw materials have different lead times, approval processes and risks involved. Some of them are also dependent on another item, and therefore cannot be ordered in advance. Converting Strategic plans to actions: The best plan is only good intentions unless it degenerates into work – Peter Druck Inputs Planning
The best plan is only good intentions unless It degenerates into work – Peter Drucker Converting Strategic plans to actions