2 Simple PastUse the simple past to describe actions, events, or states at a specific past time.Isabel Allende grew up in South America.In the 1950s, she attended a private school in Bolivia.nowpastfuture
3 Past ProgressiveUse the past progressive to express an action that was in progress (not finished) in the past.Allende was working for the United Nations. . .. . . when she married her first husband in 1962.1962nowpastfuture
4 Present PerfectUse present perfect to express actions, events, or states completed at an indefinite time in the past.Isabel Allende has lived in Peru, Chile, and Venezuela.She has done numerous lecture toursin America and Europe.nowpastfuture
5 Simple Past vs. Present Perfect Present perfect: for events at an indefinite time in the pastSimple past: for events at a definite time in the pastIsabel Allende has traveled all over Europe.In 1964, she traveled all overEurope with her husband and daughter.1964nowpastfuture
6 Practice 1 Form sentences with present perfect or simple past. nowpastfutureExample:4. (live) in the U.S. for over 15 yearsShe has lived in the U.S. for over 15 years.She had her daughter in 1963.(have) her daughter in 1963She married her second husband in 1988.3. (marry) her second husband in 19881. (work) for several magazinesShe has worked for several magazines.2. (move) to Venezuela with her family in 1975She moved to Venezuela with her family in 1975.
7 Past with Used ToUse used to + base form to show habitual events that were true in the past but not today.She used to be on the editorial staff of a Chilean magazine called Paula.She used to write many humorous and feminist articles for that magazine.nowpastfuture
8 Past Perfect 1Use the past perfect to express events that happened before a past event.Allende had published many magazine articles . . .. . . before she wrote her famous novel House of Spirits.nowpastfuturebefore past eventpast event
9 Past Perfect 2The past perfect is often used with by or by the time. The by clause may precede or follow the main clause.By the time Isabel Allende returned to Chile in. . . fifteen years had gone by.nowfifteen yearspastfuture19761991
10 Practice 2Form sentences with simple past and past perfect using before.She had worked for the United Nations before she had her son Nicolas.(work) for the United NationsExample:(have) her son NicolasnowpastfutureShe had been a contributor to Mampato magazine before she directed the magazine.(be) a contributor to Mampato MagazineIsabel had published several novels before she started a trilogy for young adults.2. Isabel (publish)several novels(direct) the magazine(start) a trilogy for young adults
11 Past with Was / Were Going To Use was / were going to + base form to describe events that were supposed to happen but did not.Isabel Allende was going to stay in Chile, but after the military coup in 1973, she had to leave the country.In 1978, they were going to separate, but Allende soon returned to her husband.nowpastdid not happenfuture
12 Practice 3Form sentences with was / were going to.Allende was going to live in Chile, but she had to flee the country.Allende planned to live in Chile.She had to flee the country.Example:She was going to write a letter, but the letter turned into a novel.She planned to write a letter.The letter turned into a novel.1They were going to stay together, but they divorced in 1987.They planned to stay together.They divorced in 1987.2
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