Presentation on theme: "Time Management and Teaching Transitions and their Problems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Time Management and Teaching Transitions and their Problems UNIT # 3Dr. Martha Pelaez
2 Basic Assumptions About Time Time is like moneyOnce it is gone, it is gone.It can be managed.It is cumulative.Time IS moneyTime is the basic currency in education, like money time needs to be managed in order to have an efficient and effective classroomThe most precious educational resource.Converts directly into student learning.The amount you have depends on your management.
3 Two Elements of Instructional Time Allocated time: time allocated for school over all, including nonacademic activities.Actual time: time spent on academic activities
4 3 Levels of Allocated Time School time: amount of time students are in schoolFactors: length of day, student absencesClass time: amount of time students are in your classroomFactors: Lunch, recessInstructional time: amount of time in which students are engaged in instructional activitiesFactors: organizational activities, interruptions
5 Actual TimeThe way in which instructional time is actually used regardless of plans or intentions.Variables affecting actual time:Start and stop timesTransition timesTime on-taskOpportunities to respond (OTR)Matching student abilityInterruptions
6 So what?You must make the most of every minute and squeeze as many minutes as possible out of the day, because…There is a very strong correlation between time used in school and student learning.You, teachers, are primarily responsible for managing instructional time.
7 What’s In It For Me?The benefits of following these time management guidelines are:Your classroom is more efficient and orderly.Your students pay better attention (more on-task)Your students are less disruptive (less off-task)Your students achieve moreYou’ll feel like you are in control and be a more effective teacher
8 How to manage instructional time Who is involved in time managementThe teacherThe studentsThe parentsThe students’ jobMaintaining a high level of academic productivityComing to class with a pencil, paper, and bookComing to class on timeIn seat and working when the bell ringsComing to class with homework completedTransitioning quickly and quietlyFollowing classroom rules
9 How to manage instructional time The parents jobKnowing the expectations of the teacher and schoolMaking sure the student has homework finishedSending the student to schoolMaking sure student is at schoolMaintaining regular contact with the teacher
10 How to manage instructional time-the teacher’s job Save time by organizing materials the day before you are going to use themHow to manage interruptionsOn the outside of your door post a note:“Our time is short, we’re busy trying to stretch it. Please leave a note”Have a pencil and a piece of paper for notesSelect extracurricular activities carefully with attention on their educational value not on their entertainment value
11 How to manage instructional time When selecting the importance of educational activities use the “big rocks’ criteriaThink of instructional time as an empty jarThe big rocks are the most important activitiesState mandated activities (3 R’s), concepts that take time to learnThe small rocks are the least important activitiesIf you have to get the most rocks in the jar, put the big ones in first and the small ones will fill up the spaces left by the big rocks
12 How to manage instructional time Use a digital timer to help you to manage timeReward students for work productivity and accuracythe faster they work the more time you will have to do other “more fun” thingsLimit planning interruptions
13 Managing instructional time Arrange activities in logical sequenceBasic skill instruction before lunch (peak level of functioning)Structure periods of low alertness with praise and participation (active student responding)Grandma’s Law (Premack Principle): induce a low probability behavior by making a high probability outcome contingent upon it. (If you want your ice cream, then eat your peas first.)Schedule an activity that students like immediately after one that they don’t like.
14 Managing instructional time Give students frequent opportunities to respond (OTR) during instruction. (e.g., guided notes, response boards)The most efficient way to do this is through active student responding -ASR. We’ll discuss this under managing group instruction.Match materials and assignments to students’ abilities/skill level.Individual instruction (e.g., peer tutoring)Ability grouping
15 Managing Actual Time (cont’d) Manage disruptions that occur during planned activitiesFor students who disrupt class: reinforce appropriate behavior (try this first) or provide warning or loss of privileges when misbehaving
16 ASR Q: Who is involved in managing time? A: Teacher, parents, and students(21, 16, 27)Q: What is the teacher’s job in managing time?A: Protecting in-class instructional time(11, 13, 3)
17 Q;. What should every good teacher have to Q; What should every good teacher have to help her or him manage instructional time?A: A digital timer(29, 17, 4)
18 Managing instructional time Develop roles for othersUsing people to assist you will enable you to assist others who need itYou are outnumbered in the classroom and need to turn a possible liability into an asset
19 Develop roles for others Develop a list activities for othersIn developing the list ask yourself:Which jobs are the most difficultWhich jobs are the most importantWhich jobs require good math, reading, or spelling skillsWhich jobs require good organization and neatnessWhich jobs require good observational skills
20 Developing roles for others Recruit people to volunteer in your classroomParents, volunteer groups, senior citizens, college students, retired teachers, professorsTeach classroom helpers EXACTLY WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, AND HOW TO help you
21 Develop roles for peers Paper passerAttendance takerGood behavior monitorGroup leaderTeaching assistant
22 Develop roles for school personnel Good behavior ticket passerParent callerStudent praiserTeacher of unique activitiesPersonal mentor in secretarial, janitorial, or other duties
23 Reward helpers often and well Notes and cards from the studentsTake the helpers out for lunchMake an in class appreciation lunchGive the helper a certificate of appreciationCall their supervisor and tell her what a wonderful job the helper is doing
24 TransitionsTransition time is the time it takes to change from one activity to anotherExamples:Changing from one subject to anotherMoving seats for group activityChanging classroomsComing/Going to lunch or PEBecause transition time tends to be less structured, students tend to be more disruptive.
25 Managing transition time Transitioning is often the largest thief of instructional timeTeach students how to transition quickly and quietly just like you would any other subject
26 What Makes Efficient Transitions? Well planned and taught transition proceduresClear expectations of student behavior during transitionStudent readiness, to end a current activity and to begin a new oneTeacher readiness for the next activity
27 Managing Transition Time Prepare in advanced for each lesson/activity for the entire dayAll materials should be prepared before school and placed where they are to be used.Why? Because it allows you to monitor and praise student behavior during transitionsTeach students how to handle transitions
28 Benefits of Teaching Transitions Minimizes the amount of nonacademic time students spend in schoolProvides teachers with more academic instruction time.Decreases the number of behavior problems that occur during unstructured time.
29 Teaching Transitions 4 rules that should be posted: Define transitions Move quietlyPut your books away and get what you need for the next activity (you may need to be specific)Move your chairs quietlyKeep your hands and feet to yourselfDefine transitionsYou and students read rulesModel the rulesHave students practice with feedbackHave them go back and do it again, if they didn’t get it the first time.
30 Other Tips for Transitions Have a clear signal for transitionsUse a timer and tell students how long their transitions takeUse praise more often than you do during work timesFrom time to time, review the rulesProvide time warnings (i.e., You have 1 minute left.)
31 Typical Problems with Transitions Students talk loudly at beginning of period.Establish a routine with clear expectations and have activity ready to begin at once.Teacher delays activities to look for materials, finish attendance, pass papers, etc.Have materials organized ahead of time and avoid doing anything that interferes with your monitoring during transitions
32 Typical Problems with Transitions Students socialize too much during transitions, especially after assignment is given but before they begin working on it. Students don’t start the activity for several minutes.Post the assignment. For whole group, work on first few items together. For small group, assign task-focuser for each group. Monitor all work.
33 Typical Problems with Transitions Teacher attempts to transition students, but students keep working on previous activity and delay the start of the next activity or results in confusion.Give a few minutes warning before the end of an activity. Actively monitor transitions. Do not start the next activity until students are ready.
34 Typical Problems with Transitions As teacher gives directions, students don’t pay attention.Don’t give instructions DURING the transition. Give whole class instruction before the transition. Wait to explain activity until students are ready and listening.One or two slowpokes delay the rest of the class.Don’t hold up the class. Find out why they are having trouble and give feedback and supervision.
35 Typical Problems with Transitions Students leave their seats, come ask the teacher questions, request hall pass, sharpen pencils, etc. during transitions.Review transition rules. Provide specified times to talk to teacher and procedures for pencil sharpener, etc.Five or more minutes before the period ends, students quit working, put up books, and begin to socialize. Often desks are left out of order and paper on the floor.Establish end-of-period routine so students will work until you give signal to “pack up”. Include cleaning their area. You dismiss the students, not the bell.
36 ASR________ _______is the time it takes to change from one activity to anotherTransition timeWhat do we call time actually spent on academic activities?Actual timeTrue or false. There is no correlation between time used in school and student learning.False
37 ASRWhat item can you use to help manage start and stop times of activities?TimerWhat do we call time allocated for school over all, including nonacademic activities?Allocated timeTrue or false. “The student is always right” means the student’s behavior will always indicate what instruction is effective for him or her.True
38 ASR List one of the four student rules for transitions. Move quietly Put your books away and get what you need for the next activity (you may need to be specific)Move your chairs quietlyKeep your hands and feet to yourself
39 ASR List one of the benefits of using the time management guidelines? Your classroom is more efficient and orderly.Your students pay better attention (more on-task)Your students are less disruptive (less off-task)Your students achieve moreYou’ll feel like you are in control and be a more effective teacher
40 ASROne way to manage actual time, is to manage students’ on-task behavior. How do you do this?By using reinforcement (e.g., praise, token economy, point system)Another way to manage actual time is to provide students with plenty of _____ ____ _____.Opportunities to respond (OTR)Give an example of Grandma’s Law or Premack Principle.If you want your icecream, then you have to eat your peas first. Or, give students a task they like immediately after a task they don’t like.
41 ASR List one of the six ways to manage ACTUAL time. Manage start and stop times of all planned activitiesManage transition times carefully. (See transition section)Manage students’ on-task behavior by using reinforcement.Give students frequent opportunities to respond (OTR) during instruction.Match materials and assignments to students’ abilities/skill level.manage disruptions that occur during planned activities
42 ASR List one problem characteristic of many classrooms Too much waste of timeEmphasis on non-academicsIneffective curriculum and instructionInsufficient measurement
43 Name one person or group of people to recruit to work in your classroom ParentsCommunity service organizationsSenior citizensRetired teachersCollege students
44 Name one job for peersPaper passerAttendance takerGood behavior monitorGroup leader
45 Name one job for othersGood behavior ticket passerParent callerStudent praiserTeacher of unique activitiesPersonal mentor in secretarial, janitorial, or other duties
46 When should you reward classroom helpers Often and well