Presentation on theme: "Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Alcohol, licensed venues and violence: preliminary results from Dealing with Alcohol and the Night Time."— Presentation transcript:
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Alcohol, licensed venues and violence: preliminary results from Dealing with Alcohol and the Night Time Economy (DANTE) A/Prof Peter Miller 1 School of Psychology, Deakin University 2 National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK 3 NDRI, Curtin University 4 Commissioning Editor, Addiction 5 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Ontario, Canada
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Acknowledgements Co-investigators: Inspector Bill Mathers, A/Prof Darren Palmer A/Prof John Wiggers, Anders Sonderlund, Florentine de Groot, Nic Droste, Jennifer Tindall, Karen Gillham, Amy Richardson, Emma McFarlane, Dr Ian Warren, Daniel Groombridge and Christophe Lecianthes. Funders: Stage 1: Australian Drug Foundation, VicHealth and TAC Stage 2: National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund ID Scanner project: Criminological Research Council Thanks to: Lisa Armstrong Rowe (City of Greater Geelong), Darren Holroyd, Ross Arblaster (Barwon Health), Bronwen Allsop (Barwon Health), Mario Gregorio, Dr Jane Mallick, Sen Con Bob Pupavac, Dr Tom Callaly (Barwon Health), Inspector Barry Malloch, Superintendent Peter O'Neill, Sergeant Shane Connelly, Inspector Carl Peers, Kirilee Tilyard (NDLERF), Dr Linton Harris (Ambulance Victoria) and A/Prof Tanya Chikritzhs and many more!
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research A reminder Four corners Monday, 26 Feb http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/stories/2013/02/25/3695353.ht m http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/stories/2013/02/25/3695353.ht m
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Geelong interventions None of these interventions had been evaluated in Geelong or elsewhere InterventionDate Liquor Accord in various forms1991 Safe City CCTV network2004 Dry zones2006 Safe Taxi RankJan 2005 Nightlife 1 (increased policing, police working with licensees)Jan 2007 Geelong night watch radio programApril 2007 ID scannersDec 2007 Nightlife 2 (Linking of scanners, NWRP, CCTV – more activity)Jan 2009 Nightrider busNov 2009 Nightlife 3 (Renewed activity – change in focus to fines)early 2010 Increased Fines and focus – State governmentAug 2010 Safer streets taskforce / Operation Razon
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Newcastle intervention Trading restrictions Reduced trading hours: all premises are prohibited from trading later than 3.30am Lock-out: patrons must be prohibited from entering after 1.30am Alcoholic drink restrictions (after 10pm) No shots No mixed drinks with more than 30mLs of alcohol No RTD (ready to drink) drinks with an alcohol by volume greater than 5% alcohol Not more than 4 drinks may be served to any patron at the one time Responsible service of alcohol actions Free water stations on all bar service areas Responsible Service of Alcohol Marshall from 11pm until closure (staff member with the sole responsibility of supervising RSA practices and consumption). No stockpiling drinks/more than 2 unconsumed drink Ceasing the sale and supply of alcohol at least 30 minutes prior to closing time.
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Research Design Geelong and Newcastle 5 +yr retrospective and 2yr prospective 4000 patron interviews 700 Community attitude surveys (CATI) Venue Observations (N=129) (quarterly) 150 Key informant interviews 97initial 26 follow up
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Alcohol-related injury – time of day & day of week Of weekend cases, 42% (n = 965) occurred on Sundays with 55% of these cases (n = 529) presenting between the hours of 12am and 6am, making this time of the week the most high-risk in terms of alcohol-related injury.
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Location
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Injury during high alcohol hours by year, Jul 99-Aug 09
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Alcohol-related assault rates (per 10,000) by quarter and year (all hours) in Geelong
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Alcohol-assaults - regression analysis R 2 =.20 (.185 adjusted) and was significantly different from zero with F(4, 209) = 13.06, p <.000. The regression model overall thus explained 20% (18.5% adjusted) of the variability in alcohol-related assault rates. Only the Just Think Campaign, contributed significantly to the model by precipitating a rise in rate of assaults. Interventionβt 1. Night Watch Radio Program.007.08 2. ID-scanners.016.14 3. Just Think Campaign.4334.7* 4. Operation Nightlife-.006-.10 Note: *p<.001, all dfs = 209
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Non-domestic assaults for HAH per 10,000 population in Newcastle/Hamilton (1/1/2001 - 31/12/2009) Significant reduction (p=0.0022) pre and post-intervention. An average reduction of 9 assaults per month.
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Street offences for HAH per 10,000 population in Newcastle/Hamilton (1/1/2001 - 31/12/2009)
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI) Item Total % (693) % Reside in each city% Patron of premises in the last year Geelong (n=318) (95% CI) Newcastle (n=376) (95% CI) P <.01 Patron (n=247) (95% CI) Non-patron (N=446) (95% CI) P <.01 Feel very unsafe/unsafe walking alone in the precinct area after dark: 21.5 21.8 [16.3-28.5] 21.3 [16-27.6] - 36.6 [28.1-46.1] 13.3 [9.8-17.7] <0.001 Increasing penalties for premises and staff who neglect to serve alcohol responsibly 87.2 88.5 [82.9-92.3] 86.2 [80.4-90.4] NS 87.2 [80-92.1] 87.2 [82.4-90.8] NS Police asking intoxicated offenders location of their last drink, and warning premises 77.379.8 [73.3-85] 75.3 [68.6-80.9] NS70.8 [61.8-78.4] 80.9 [75.7-85.2] 0.008
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Strategy Total % (693) % Reside in each city % Patron of premises in the last year Geelong (n=318) 95% CI Newcastle (n=376) 95% CI P <.01 Patron (n=247) 95% CI Non-patron (n=446) 95% CI P <.01 1. Restrict alcohol access Closing all late-night licensed premises earlier71.1 71.5 [64.7-77.6] 70.7 [64.3-76.7] NS 55.1 [46.6-63.7] 79.8 [74.5-84.2] <0.00 1 If supported, appropriate closing time: Before 12am 21 11.7 [8.1-16.8] 28.5 [22.9-35.7] <0.001 8.5 [5.3-14.4] 27.7 [22.3-34.1] <0.00 1 12.01am to 1am 20.7 14 [9.9-19.6] 26.1 [20.3-33.2] <0.001 15.3 [10.1-22.8] 23.6 [18.7-29.5] NS 1.01am to 2am 25.1 29.3 [22.9-36.7] 21.8 [16.7-28.1] NS 24.6 [17.8-33.3] 25.4 [20.4-31.3] NS 2.01am to 3am 23 31.9 [25-39.5] 15.9 [11.5-21.5] <0.001 32.6 [24.5-41.9] 17.9 [13.7-23] <0.00 1 After 3am 8.1 11.8 [7.6-17.5] 5.1 [2.8-8.7] <0.001 16.7 [10.7-24.8] 3.4 [1.9-6.1] <0.00 1 Reducing trading hours of premises located in high-risk areas 79.2 78.2 [71.7-83.7] 80.1 [74-85.1] NS 65 [55.9-73.3] 87 [82.5-90.5] <0.00 1 Stricter restrictions on alcohol discounts and promotions 71.972.1 [65.1-78.3] 71.8 [65.1-77.8] NS65 [56-73.2] 75.7 [70.1-80.6] NS
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Patron Interviews 3949 people agreed to be interviewed. a response rate of 90.7% (G, 92.5%; Nc, 89.1%) longitudinally over an 18 month period
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Summary table – Patron Interviews ItemGeelongNewcastleTotal Standard drinks consumed pre going out - 0 - 1-5 - 6-10 - 11+ 27.9% 38.7% 24.2% 9.1% 37.1% 37.8% 19.1% 5.9% 32.8% 38.2% 21.5% 7.4% Why do you Pre-drink - Price34.8%35.3%35.1% Involved in fight 15.715.315.5 How often have you seen police tonight? - never - once - twice - a few times 58.0% 23.2% 8.5% 6.0% 53.1% 26.1% 9.9% 8.0% 55.4% 24.7% 9.2% 7.1% χ 2 =9.372, p=.002
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Summary table – Patron Interviews ItemGeelongNewcastleTotal Other drug use (any)8.5%5.7%7.0% - Methamphetamine - Cannabis - Speed - Ecstasy - Refuse to tell (indicated drug use) 2.7% 2.3% 1.4% 0.5% 1.1% 1.2% 1.9% 1.3% 0.4% 1.2% 1.9% 2.1% 1.3% 0.5% 1.1% Intox level when interviewed - Mean (σ) - Zero self-rated intoxication 4.46 (2.29) 13.9% 4.39 (2.10) 14.9% 4.42 (2.15) 14.4% t=.907, p=.023 Interviewer intoxication ratings (out of 6) - Mean (σ) 1.01 (1.39)0.66 (1.14)0.82 (1.27)t=8.54, p=.000 Witnessed fight 62.758.660.6
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Self-rated intoxication (mean) over time
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Pre-drinking People who pre-drank were significantly more likely to be in a fight (χ 2 =25.47, p<.000). –5+ drinks = 2 times more likely –11-25 drinks = 2.8-3.8 times more likely –25+ drinks = 4.5 times more likely side drinking- loading also the norm.
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research VENUE OBSERVATIONS Late-night venues are significantly more likely to adopt practices if they are mandatory rather than voluntary Compliance in Newcastle high Few Geelong venues adopted voluntary RSA measures Only 52.6% of observers IDs scanned at venues trading after 1am Of the people who were observed as being too drunk to be on premises, over 80% were able to buy another drink
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Conclusion Newcastle started and ended the past ten years with rates of alcohol-related harm up to 3 times higher, despite restricted trading hours (5am then 3.3am) Geelong has had 7am closing venues the whole time, but levels of violence increased substantially since 2005. But Newcastle intervention had an immediate effect which has continued to push trends downwards, 3 years later AT NO COST The Geelong interventions studied had no positive effect, and even possibly a negative effect AT SUBSTANTIAL COST Geelong rates finally show non-significant decline Fines Regression to the mean?
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Further conclusions Pre-drinking is a major – and growing – problem with very few viable approaches excluding price Illicit drug use predicts greater harm, but a fairly small minority report drug use RSA is failing demonstrably and needs far greater enforcement We need far more research on effective policing practises
Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Recommendations 1.Introduce an Alcohol harm levy for packaged liquor sales 2.Restrict trading hours when rates unacceptably high –Case for Geelong weaker 3.Introduce mandatory liquor license conditions –Mandatory liquor accord membership another option 4.Improve data collection and access –Collect of systematic targeted information on sources of alcohol- related harm –Timely and universal access to relevant data sources 5.Explore alternate sustainable models of governing the night-time economy –Police Community Service Officers (PCSOs)/User-pays policing 6.Improve models of transportation 7.Further research/trials on fines –promising