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Time Series Data in MongoDB Senior Solutions Architect, MongoDB Inc. Massimo Brignoli #mongodb.

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Presentation on theme: "Time Series Data in MongoDB Senior Solutions Architect, MongoDB Inc. Massimo Brignoli #mongodb."— Presentation transcript:

1 Time Series Data in MongoDB Senior Solutions Architect, MongoDB Inc. Massimo Brignoli #mongodb

2 Agenda What is time series data? Schema design considerations Broader use case: operational intelligence MMS Monitoring schema design Thinking ahead Questions

3 What is time series data?

4 Time Series Data is Everywhere Financial markets pricing (stock ticks) Sensors (temperature, pressure, proximity) Industrial fleets (location, velocity, operational) Social networks (status updates) Mobile devices (calls, texts) Systems (server logs, application logs)

5 Time Series Data at a Higher Level Widely applicable data model Applies to several different data use cases Various schema and modeling options Application requirements drive schema design

6 Time Series Data Considerations Resolution of raw events Resolution needed to support – Applications – Analysis – Reporting Data retention policies – Data ages out – Retention

7 Schema Design Considerations

8 Designing For Writing and Reading Document per event Document per minute (average) Document per minute (second) Document per hour

9 Document Per Event { server: server1, load: 92, ts: ISODate("2013-10-16T22:07:38.000-0500") } Relational-centric approach Insert-driven workload Aggregations computed at application-level

10 Document Per Minute (Average) { server: server1, load_num: 92, load_sum: 4500, ts: ISODate("2013-10-16T22:07:00.000-0500") } Pre-aggregate to compute average per minute more easily Update-driven workload Resolution at the minute-level

11 Document Per Minute (By Second) { server: server1, load: { 0: 15, 1: 20, …, 58: 45, 59: 40 } ts: ISODate("2013-10-16T22:07:00.000-0500") } Store per-second data at the minute level Update-driven workload Pre-allocate structure to avoid document moves

12 Document Per Hour (By Second) { server: server1, load: { 0: 15, 1: 20, …, 3598: 45, 3599: 40 } ts: ISODate("2013-10-16T22:00:00.000-0500") } Store per-second data at the hourly level Update-driven workload Pre-allocate structure to avoid document moves Updating last second requires 3599 steps

13 Document Per Hour (By Second) { server: server1, load: { 0: {0: 15, …, 59: 45}, …. 59: {0: 25, …, 59: 75} ts: ISODate("2013-10-16T22:00:00.000-0500") } Store per-second data at the hourly level with nesting Update-driven workload Pre-allocate structure to avoid document moves Updating last second requires 59+59 steps

14 Characterzing Write Differences Example: data generated every second Capturing data per minute requires: – Document per event: 60 writes – Document per minute: 1 write, 59 updates Transition from insert driven to update driven – Individual writes are smaller – Performance and concurrency benefits

15 Characterizing Read Differences Example: data generated every second Reading data for a single hour requires: – Document per event: 3600 reads – Document per minute: 60 reads Read performance is greatly improved – Optimal with tuned block sizes and read ahead – Fewer disk seeks

16 MMS Monitoring Schema Design

17 MMS Monitoring MongoDB Management System Monitoring Available in two flavors – Free cloud-hosted monitoring – On-premise with MongoDB Enterprise Monitor single node, replica set, or sharded cluster deployments Metric dashboards and custom alert triggers

18 MMS Monitoring

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20 MMS Application Requirements Resolution defines granularity of stored data Range controls the retention policy, e.g. after 24 hours only 5- minute resolution Display dictates the stored pre- aggregations, e.g. total and count

21 Monitoring Schema Design Per-minute document model Documents store individual metrics and counts Supports total and avg/sec display { timestamp_minute: ISODate(2013-10-10T23:06:00.000Z), num_samples: 58, total_samples: 108000000, type: memory_used, values: { 0: 999999, … 59: 1800000 }

22 Monitoring Data Updates Single update required to add new data and increment associated counts db.metrics.update( { timestamp_minute: ISODate("2013-10-10T23:06:00.000Z"), type: memory_used }, { {$set: {values.59: 2000000 }}, {$inc: {num_samples: 1, total_samples: 2000000 }} } )

23 Monitoring Data Management Data stored at different granularity levels for read performance Collections are organized into specific intervals Retention is managed by simply dropping collections as they age out Document structure is pre-created to maximize write performance

24 Use Case: Operational Intelligence

25 What is Operational Intelligence Storing log data – Capturing application and/or server generated events Hierarchical aggregation – Rolling approach to generate rollups – e.g. hourly > daily > weekly > monthly Pre-aggregated reports – Processing data to generate reporting from raw events

26 Storing Log Data { _id: ObjectId('4f442120eb03305789000000'), host: "127.0.0.1", user: 'frank', time: ISODate("2000-10-10T20:55:36Z"), path: "/apache_pb.gif", request: "GET /apache_pb.gif HTTP/1.0", status: 200, response_size: 2326, referrer: http://www.example.com/start.html", user_agent: "Mozilla/4.08 [en] (Win98; I ;Nav)" } 127.0.0.1 - frank [10/Oct/2000:13:55:36 -0700] "GET /apache_pb.gif HTTP/1.0" 200 2326 "[http://www.example.com/start.html](http://www.example.com/start.html)" "Mozilla/4.08 [en] (Win98; I ;Nav)

27 Pre-Aggregation Analytics across raw events can involve many reads Alternative schemas can improve read and write performance Data can be organized into more coarse buckets Transition from insert-driven to update-driven workloads

28 Pre-Aggregated Log Data { timestamp_minute: ISODate("2000-10-10T20:55:00Z"), resource: "/index.html", page_views: { 0: 50, … 59: 250 } Leverage time-series style bucketing Track individual metrics (ex. page views) Improve performance for reads/writes Minimal processing overhead

29 Hierarchical Aggregation Analytical approach as opposed to schema approach – Leverage built-in Aggregation Framework or MapReduce Execute multiple tasks sequentially to aggregate at varying levels Raw events Hourly Weekly Monthly Rolling approach distributes the aggregation workload

30 Thinking Ahead

31 Before You Start What are the application requirements? Is pre-aggregation useful for your application? What are your retention and age-out policies? What are the gotchas? – Pre-create document structure to avoid fragmentation and performance problems – Organize your data for growth – time series data grows fast!

32 Down The Road Scale-out considerations – Vertical vs. horizontal (with sharding) Understanding the data – Aggregation – Analytics – Reporting Deeper data analysis – Patterns – Predictions

33 Scaling Time Series Data in MongoDB Vertical growth – Larger instances with more CPU and memory – Increased storage capacity Horizontal growth – Partitioning data across many machines – Dividing and distributing the workload

34 Time Series Sharding Considerations What are the application requirements? – Primarily collecting data – Primarily reporting data – Both Map those back to – Write performance needs – Read/write query distribution – Collection organization (see MMS Monitoring) Example: {metric name, coarse timestamp}

35 Aggregates, Analytics, Reporting Aggregation Framework can be used for analysis – Does it work with the chosen schema design? – What sorts of aggregations are needed? Reporting can be done on predictable, rolling basis – See Hierarchical Aggregation Consider secondary reads for analytical operations – Minimize load on production primaries

36 Deeper Data Analysis Leverage MongoDB-Hadoop connector – Bi-directional support for reading/writing – Works with online and offline data (e.g. backup files) Compute using MapReduce – Patterns – Recommendations – Etc. Explore data – Pig – Hive

37 Questions?

38 Resources Schema Design for Time Series Data in MongoDB http://blog.mongodb.org/post/65517193370/schema-design-for-time-series- data-in-mongodb http://blog.mongodb.org/post/65517193370/schema-design-for-time-series- data-in-mongodb Operational Intelligence Use Case http://docs.mongodb.org/ecosystem/use-cases/#operational-intelligence http://docs.mongodb.org/ecosystem/use-cases/#operational-intelligence Data Modeling in MongoDB http://docs.mongodb.org/manual/data-modeling/ http://docs.mongodb.org/manual/data-modeling/ Schema Design (webinar) http://www.mongodb.com/events/webinar/schema-design-oct2013 http://www.mongodb.com/events/webinar/schema-design-oct2013


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