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Analysis grid superimposed 2D Street Grid Calculating Travel-Time …vector to raster conversion Note that a 100 row by 100 column analysis grid (10,000 cells) is superimposed on the street data and those cells containing a road are assigned a friction value representing the typical time to traverse each location– primary streets (red) = 8.5 seconds; secondary streets (blue) = 25.5 seconds.

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2D Street Grid 3D Street Grid Calculating Travel-Time …street types as relative barriers Note that the street pattern can be displayed as 2D and 3D plots. The street pattern can be conceptualized as a canal network that connects Kents Emporium to its customers. Kents Emporium

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2D TTime_0-10 3D TTime_0-10 Calculating Travel-Time …splash 0-10 cells = 0 to 1.4 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min Note that the distance waves begin to move away from Kents Emporium along the canal pattern (streets) like ripples from a rock tossed into the water. The distance waves accumulate the time it takes to cross each grid cell– considering the relative impedance for primary (8.5sec) and secondary (25.5sec) streets.

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2D TTime_0-20 3D TTime_0-20 Calculating Travel-Time …0-20 cells = 0 to 2.8 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_0-30 3D TTime_0-30 Calculating Travel-Time …0-30 cells = 0 to 4.3 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_0-40 3D TTime_0-40 Calculating Travel-Time …0-40 cells = 0 to 5.7 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_0-50 3D TTime_0-50 Calculating Travel-Time …0-50 cells = 0 to 7.1 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_0-60 3D TTime_0-60 Calculating Travel-Time …0-60 cells = 0 to 8.5 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_0-70 3D TTime_0-70 Calculating Travel-Time …0-70 cells = 0 to 10.0 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_0-80 3D TTime_0-80 Calculating Travel-Time …0-80 cells = 0 to 11.4 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_0-90 3D TTime_0-90 Calculating Travel-Time …0-90 cells = 0 to 12.8 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_ D TTime_0-100 Calculating Travel-Time …0-100 cells = 0 to 14.2 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_ D TTime_0-110 Calculating Travel-Time …0-110 cells = 0 to 15.7 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_ D TTime_0-120 Calculating Travel-Time …0-120 cells = 0 to 17.1 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_ D TTime_0-130 Calculating Travel-Time …0-130 cells = 0 to 18.5 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_ D TTime_0-140 Calculating Travel-Time …0-140 cells = 0 to 20.0 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_ D TTime_0-150 Calculating Travel-Time …0-150 cells = 0 to 21.4 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_ D TTime_0-160 Calculating Travel-Time …0-160 cells = 0 to 22.8 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_ D TTime_0-170 Calculating Travel-Time …0-170 cells = 0 to 24.2 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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2D TTime_ D TTime_0-180 Calculating Travel-Time …0-180 cells = 0 to 25.6 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min

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Results displayed in a Desktop Mapping system (raster to vector) 2D TTime_0-180 Calculating Travel-Time …0-180 cells = 0 to 25.6 minutes Base cell = 8.5sec =.1424min Note that of the 10,000 cells comprising the analysis grid, 4123 do not contain a road. Of the 5877 cells with a road, 3014 locations (a little over 50 percent) are 0 to 70 effective cells away, or about 10 minutes from Kents Emporium (non- shaded area of the summary table)

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Calculating Travel-Time For more discussion on travel-time calculation and its applications, visit… …educational software for hands-on experience in creating and using travel- time maps and other grid-based map analysis …online book discussing travel-time concepts, procedures and considerations (Topics 5, 6, 13,14 and 17), as well as other grid-based analysis techniques …also see Papers/Presentations Online Papers, select Understanding Effective Distance and Connectivity

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