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© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 Free-time activities INFINITIVE AND GERUND COMPLETERS.

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Presentation on theme: "© Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 Free-time activities INFINITIVE AND GERUND COMPLETERS."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 Free-time activities INFINITIVE AND GERUND COMPLETERS

2 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 Verbs that express preference We use VERB+ING after verbs that express general preference, such as: We use VERB+ING after verbs that express general preference, such as: love, like, enjoy, dislike, hate and prefer love, like, enjoy, dislike, hate and prefer We also use –ING after certain verbs: We also use –ING after certain verbs: consider, avoid, deny, look forward to, confess to, fancy, involve, mention, risk, spend, mind, regret, admit, suggest, imagine, etc. consider, avoid, deny, look forward to, confess to, fancy, involve, mention, risk, spend, mind, regret, admit, suggest, imagine, etc. ING can be pronounced /i / OR /in/ ING can be pronounced /i / OR /in/

3 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 Some verbs take verbal completers that behave like nouns. These verbal completers may be infinitives or gerunds. (A gerund is the -ing form of a verb when it's used as a noun. When the same form is used as a modifier, it's called a participle.) She encourages him to eat at her house. She encourages him to eat at her house. Encourage is a verb that takes an infinitive completer. Encourage is a verb that takes an infinitive completer. He appreciates knowing that he was welcome there. He appreciates knowing that he was welcome there. Appreciate is a verb that takes a gerund completer. Appreciate is a verb that takes a gerund completer. The family love to see him. OR The family love seeing him. The family love to see him. OR The family love seeing him. Love takes either an infinive or a gerund. Love takes either an infinive or a gerund.

4 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 There's no simple way of knowing whether a verb takes an infinitive or gerund completer. Sometimes verbs with similar meanings take different completers: I like to swim, but he hates to swim. OR I like swimming, but he hates swimming. I like to swim, but he hates to swim. OR I like swimming, but he hates swimming. Like and hate take either form. Like and hate take either form. I enjoy swimming, but he dislikes swimming. I enjoy swimming, but he dislikes swimming. Enjoy and dislike take gerunds only. Although they are smilar to like and hate, they cannot take infinitives. Enjoy and dislike take gerunds only. Although they are smilar to like and hate, they cannot take infinitives.

5 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 Leisure activities Make sentences

6 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 Leisure activities Make senteces

7 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 Adding -ING to a verb We generally add ING to a verb to form the present participle We generally add ING to a verb to form the present participle Example: I like doing exercise Example: I like doing exercise If the verb ends in consonant + e, we drop the e and add ING If the verb ends in consonant + e, we drop the e and add ING Example: I'm having a good time Example: I'm having a good time If the verb ends in consonant + vowel + consonant and a stressed syllable, we double the final consonant If the verb ends in consonant + vowel + consonant and a stressed syllable, we double the final consonant Example: I'm beginning to understand this. Example: I'm beginning to understand this. In one syllable verbs ending in vowel + consonant, we double the consonant In one syllable verbs ending in vowel + consonant, we double the consonant Example: I hate stopping at traffic lights Example: I hate stopping at traffic lights Exceptions: verbs ending in -ie Exceptions: verbs ending in -ie

8 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 Adding ing to typical verbs jumping crying enjoying looking reading saying talking walking working sleeping jump cry enjoy look read say talk walk work sleep

9 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 Adding ing to typical verbs hoping writing dancing making liking smiling coming riding loving wasting hope write dance make like smile come ride love waste

10 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 Adding ing to typical verbs hopping running chatting sitting shopping dropping robbing dragging slipping grinning hop run chat sit shop drop rob drag slip grin

11 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 Adding ing to typical verbs teching turning sharing snapping amazing snoring betting spending raising clapping teach turn share snap amaze snore bet spend raise clap

12 © Rafael Moreno Esteban 2007 Making sentences I like gardening. She hates kitesurfing. We love cooking. He dislikes doing homework. You love ironing. They enjoy going out. Gardening Kitesurf Cooking Doing homework Ironing Going out


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