2Minnesota Safe Surgery Coalition Coalition Goal: Eliminate Wrong Site, Wrong Procedure and Wrong Patient Events within 3 Years.MembersMinnesota Hospital AssociationMinnesota Department of HealthMinnesota Medical AssociationMinnesota Medical Group Management AssociationMMIC Group2
3The Minnesota Time Out Campaign Phase 1 of the Safe Surgery ProjectTargets Wrong Site EventsObjective: Administration, physicians and front-line staff will join together to hold each other accountable for conducting robust, effective Time Outs for every patient, every invasive procedure, every time.Kick-off on National Time Out Day (June 15)3
4Why is the Campaign Necessary? Reports of adverse events involving procedures performed on the wrong site/side/level have been increasing in Minnesota.Last year, 66% of wrong site procedures were on the wrong side (right vs. left).4
5Sample Minnesota Events The Anesthesia Care Provider inserted the needle to perform an anesthesia block. The patient felt a twitch in their leg and stated that the twitch was on the left side and the surgery should be on the right side. The patient was correct.No site marking or Time Out had been performed for the block.Site mark for right stent placement placed on arm and was not visible after prepping and draping. Left stent placement performed.Site mark was not visualized during the Time Out.
6Sample Minnesota Events Surgeon consulted on patients in two different rooms. Surgeon performed knee aspiration on incorrect side thinking it was the other patient.Patient identity was not verified and Time Out was not performed.Patient consented to left knee arthroscopy. Right leg placed in holder and tourniquet placed. Surgical site had been marked but when initials were not seen on the right leg surgeon thought marked was removed by surgical prep. Site marked was not visualized during the Time Out.
7Sample Minnesota Events Patient consent for a right knee arthroscopy. All documents indicated right knee and right knee was site marked by surgeon. Surgeon and nurse put leg holder on left side of table and positioned left leg in holder. Left knee injected, prepped and draped. Time Out conducted and incision made to left knee. When nurse started documentation, she noted that the left knee was intended and informed the surgeon. Site mark was not visualized during the Time Out. All members of the team were not engaged in the Time Out process.
8Why Focus on Time-Out?Almost all of the 2010 wrong site procedures in Minnesota were breakdowns in basic best practices - primarily in the Time Out process.Observational studies of time out in Minnesota ORs show that:Site mark not visualizedSource documents not referencedStating “I agree” rather than independent verificationIn a number of instances, such as an anesthesia block prior to a surgical procedure, there was no process in place to conduct site marking and a Time Out.8
9Development of MN Time Out Developed by University of MN Center for Human Factors Research and DesignObserved 58 procedures across 8 hospitalsDirect observationsFocus groups
10Addressing Gaps MN Time Out addresses observed gaps Uncertainty about initiationNo cessation of activityNo acknowledgement of accuracy of informationNo referral to source documentsNo or incorrect site marksTeam members not cognitively engaged
11Minnesota Time Out Step Rationale 1. Person performing procedure initiatesThe team is more likely to cease activity and come together for the Time Out.2. Team ceases all activityActive listening/participation.3. Designated staff, other than person performing procedure (OR – circulator), verbally states patient name, procedure and location while referring to source documents. (In the OR, ACP also provides patient name and procedure from their documentation).-Surgeon is the last to verify to controlfor hierarchy/power differential, i.e. if the surgeon states information first, the team is more likely to agree rather than provide independent verification.-Source documents have been verified prior to the procedure and should be an accurate source of information.4. Designated staff, other than person performing procedure (OR – scrub), locates and verbally confirms visualization of site mark and states where it is located.-Providing an active role (rather than “I agree”) for all team members counters rote recitation. -Team members more likely to be cognitively engaged in the process.5. Person performing procedure verbally states procedure including location from memory.Decreases memory interference to focus on this procedure.11
12Call to Action for Physicians All steps of the Time Out must be conducted before every invasive procedure for every patient, every time.Key areas where a Time Out is not consistently applied across the state:OR proceduresBlocks and injections prior to OR proceduresStand alone anesthesia blocksInterventional radiology procedures
13Stop the Line PracticeAny person who observes or becomes aware of harmful situation in patient care has the authority and responsibility to speak up and request the process be stopped in order to clarify the patient safety situation.This person needs to say in a firm, clear and respectful manner: “STOP, I have a patient safety concern.”Staff are to assertively voice concern at least two times to ensure the request has been heard.If there is noncompliance to respond to this time out, the Chain of Command process is invoked.
14Success storiesAn elderly patient undergoing repair of a hip fracture was prepped for a right-sided procedure, consistent with the consent, history and physical, and a consultation report. During the time out, the surgical team determined that the patient had a left hip fracture, which was then confirmed by x-ray. The procedure was performed on the correct side.Wrong knee was marked in pre-procedure area. Verification of the site marking against source documents uncovered the discrepancy and correct site was marked and surgery completed.
15Take-Home PointsA Time Out must be completed prior to any invasive procedure across the organization for every patient, every time.All Time Outs must be completed following the 5 key steps in the Time Out process.If there are any discrepancies during the Time Out or a step is not completed, members of the team will “Stop the Line” until resolution and agreement by the team.Staff and physicians will be supported by administration in “Stopping the Line.”