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John Carrolls Model Compare and contrast Carroll's model of school learning and Huitt's model of the teaching/ learning process discussed in Unit #1 (or a corresponding model from one of the required readings). Developed by W. Huitt (1999)

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In 1963, John Carroll proposed a model to account for school learning. His major premise was that school learning is a function of time. To be more specific, Carroll proposed that School Learning = f Time Spent Time Needed John Carrolls Model of School Learning

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Carroll defined time spent as a function of Opportunity Amount of time available for learning Perseverance The extent to which students take advantage of the opportunity to learn John Carrolls Model of School Learning

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Carroll proposed the following measures for these variables: Opportunity Allocated Time (Amount of time available for learning) Perseverance Engagement Rate (Percentage of Allocated Time students were paying attention) John Carrolls Model of School Learning

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Carroll proposed engaged time or time-on- task as measure of time spent Engaged Time = Allocated Time * Engagement Rate Engaged Time = the number of minutes per school day that students were actually engaged in school work John Carrolls Model of School Learning

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Carroll defined time needed as a function of Aptitude The ability to learn academic material (IQ) Ability to Understand Instruction The preparedness of the student for understanding the specific material to be learned (prerequisite knowledge) Quality of Instruction Instruction methods and techniques John Carrolls Model of School Learning

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The transactional model of the teaching/learning process presented in this class is derived from a set of models that relate historically to Carrolls model (McIlrath & Huitt, 1995). McIlrath, D., & Huitt, W. (1995). The teaching/learning process: A discussion of models. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University.The teaching/learning process: A discussion of models There are some significant differences, however. Carroll was specific; Huitt is generic Carroll assumes learning is measured by scores on standardized tests of basic skills; Huitt does not

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Using Carroll's terminology, an equation for Huitts model would be Learning (Output) = f(Context, Input and Classroom Processes). John Carrolls Model of School Learning

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Academic Learning Time (ALT) is the variable that has replaced "time spent" or "engaged time" identified in Carroll's model. ALT the amount of time students are successfully covering content that will be tested Academic Learning Time

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ALT is a combination of three separate variables: Content Overlap Involvement Success The percentage of the content covered on the test actually covered by students in the classroom Amount of time students are actively involved in the learning process Extent to which students accurately complete the assignments they have been given Academic Learning Time

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A high level of Academic Learning Time means that 1) students are covering important (tested/evaluated) content; 2) students are "on-task" most of the class period; and 3) students are successful on most the assignments they complete. Academic Learning Time

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is a measure of the QUALITY as well as QUANTITY of time. Academic Learning Time

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Time Needed If Time to Learn is held CONSTANT (all students receive the same amount of time-to-learn regardless of aptitude), then Academic Aptitude is the most important variable related to Time Needed.

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Time Needed If Time to Learn is allowed to VARY (students receive as much time as they need to learn important content), then Prerequisite Knowledge and Quality of Instruction become more important.

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Variables Omitted In Carrolls Model Carroll omitted many important variables in his model: Planning Management School-level and Annual Time Variables Teacher Efficacy Context Variables

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