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© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Real-Time Systems and Programming Languages n Buy Real-Time Systems: Ada 95, Real-Time Java and Real-Time POSIX by Burns and Wellings n See www.cs.york.ac.uk/rts/RTSBookThirdEdition.html n Foils: /usr/course/rts/foils n Practicals: email me your preference
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Prerequisites n Basic understanding of Ada and C n Basic understanding of Computer Architectures. n Basic understanding of Operating Systems
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Course Aims n Understanding of the broad concept n Practical understanding for industry n To stimulate research interest
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Overall Technical Aims of the Course n To understand the basic requirements of real-time systems and how these requirements have influenced the design of real-time programming languages and real-time operating systems. n To understand the implementation and analysis techniques which enable the requirements to be realized.
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 What is a real-time system? n A real-time system is any information processing system which has to respond to externally generated input stimuli within a finite and specified period –the correctness depends not only on the logical result but also the time it was delivered –failure to respond is as bad as the wrong response! n The computer is a component in a larger engineering system => EMBEDDED COMPUTER SYSTEM n 99% of all processors are for the embedded systems market
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Terminology n Hard real-time systems where it is absolutely imperative that responses occur within the required deadline. E.g. Flight control systems. n Soft real-time systems where deadlines are important but which will still function correctly if deadlines are occasionally missed. E.g. Data acquisition system. n Real real-time systems which are hard real-time and which the response times are very short. E.g. Missile guidance system. n Firm real-time systems which are soft real-time but in which there is no benefit from late delivery of service. A single system may have all hard, soft and real real-time subsystems In reality many systems will have a cost function associated with missing each deadline
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A simple fluid control system Pipe Flow meter Valve Interface Computer Time Input flow reading Processing Output valve angle
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A Grain-Roasting Plant Fuel Tank Furnace Bin Pipe fuel grain
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A Widget-Packing Station Line controller Computer Switch Assembly line Box 0 = stop 1 = run Bell Switch
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A Process Control System Process Control Computer Chemicals and Materials Valve Temperature Transducer Stirrer Finished Products PLANT
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A Production Control System Production Control System Parts Machine ToolsManipulatorsConveyor Belt Finished Products
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A Command and Control System Temperature, Pressure, Power and so on Terminals Command and Control Computer Command Post Sensors/Actuators
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A Typical Embedded System Algorithms for Digital Control Data Logging Data Retrieval and Display Operator Interface Engineering System Remote Monitoring System Real-Time Clock Database Operators Console Display Devices Real-Time Computer
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Characteristics of a RTS n Large and complex vary from a few hundred lines of assembler or C to 20 million lines of Ada estimated for the Space Station Freedom n Concurrent control of separate system components devices operate in parallel in the real-world; better to model this parallelism by concurrent entities in the program n Facilities to interact with special purpose hardware need to be able to program devices in a reliable and abstract way
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Characteristics of a RTS n Extreme reliability and safe embedded systems typically control the environment in which they operate; failure to control can result in loss of life, damage to environment or economic loss n Guaranteed response times we need to be able to predict with confidence the worst case response times for systems; efficiency is important but predictability is essential
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Real-time Programming Languages n Assembly languages n Sequential systems implementation languages e.g. RTL/2, Coral 66, Jovial, C. n Both normally require operating system support. n High-level concurrent languages. Impetus from the software crisis. e.g. Ada, Chill, Modula-2, Mesa, Java. n No operating system support! n We will consider: –Java/Real-Time Java –C and Real-Time POSIX –Ada 95 –Also Modula-1 for device driving
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Real-Time Languages and OSs Hardware Operating System User Programs Typical OS Configuration Hardware Including Operating System Components User Program Typical Embedded Configuration
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Summary n Two main classes of such systems have been identified: –hard real-time systems –soft real-time systems n The basic characteristics of a real-time or embedded computer system are: –largeness and complexity, –manipulation of real numbers, –extreme reliability and safety, –concurrent control of separate system components, –real-time control, –interaction with hardware interfaces, –efficient implementation.
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