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© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Real-Time Systems and Programming Languages n Buy Real-Time Systems: Ada 95, Real-Time Java and Real-Time POSIX by Burns and Wellings n See n Foils: /usr/course/rts/foils n Practicals: me your preference
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Prerequisites n Basic understanding of Ada and C n Basic understanding of Computer Architectures. n Basic understanding of Operating Systems
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Course Aims n Understanding of the broad concept n Practical understanding for industry n To stimulate research interest
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Overall Technical Aims of the Course n To understand the basic requirements of real-time systems and how these requirements have influenced the design of real-time programming languages and real-time operating systems. n To understand the implementation and analysis techniques which enable the requirements to be realized.
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 What is a real-time system? n A real-time system is any information processing system which has to respond to externally generated input stimuli within a finite and specified period –the correctness depends not only on the logical result but also the time it was delivered –failure to respond is as bad as the wrong response! n The computer is a component in a larger engineering system => EMBEDDED COMPUTER SYSTEM n 99% of all processors are for the embedded systems market
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Terminology n Hard real-time systems where it is absolutely imperative that responses occur within the required deadline. E.g. Flight control systems. n Soft real-time systems where deadlines are important but which will still function correctly if deadlines are occasionally missed. E.g. Data acquisition system. n Real real-time systems which are hard real-time and which the response times are very short. E.g. Missile guidance system. n Firm real-time systems which are soft real-time but in which there is no benefit from late delivery of service. A single system may have all hard, soft and real real-time subsystems In reality many systems will have a cost function associated with missing each deadline
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A simple fluid control system Pipe Flow meter Valve Interface Computer Time Input flow reading Processing Output valve angle
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A Grain-Roasting Plant Fuel Tank Furnace Bin Pipe fuel grain
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A Widget-Packing Station Line controller Computer Switch Assembly line Box 0 = stop 1 = run Bell Switch
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A Process Control System Process Control Computer Chemicals and Materials Valve Temperature Transducer Stirrer Finished Products PLANT
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A Production Control System Production Control System Parts Machine ToolsManipulatorsConveyor Belt Finished Products
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A Command and Control System Temperature, Pressure, Power and so on Terminals Command and Control Computer Command Post Sensors/Actuators
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 A Typical Embedded System Algorithms for Digital Control Data Logging Data Retrieval and Display Operator Interface Engineering System Remote Monitoring System Real-Time Clock Database Operators Console Display Devices Real-Time Computer
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Characteristics of a RTS n Large and complex vary from a few hundred lines of assembler or C to 20 million lines of Ada estimated for the Space Station Freedom n Concurrent control of separate system components devices operate in parallel in the real-world; better to model this parallelism by concurrent entities in the program n Facilities to interact with special purpose hardware need to be able to program devices in a reliable and abstract way
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Characteristics of a RTS n Extreme reliability and safe embedded systems typically control the environment in which they operate; failure to control can result in loss of life, damage to environment or economic loss n Guaranteed response times we need to be able to predict with confidence the worst case response times for systems; efficiency is important but predictability is essential
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Real-time Programming Languages n Assembly languages n Sequential systems implementation languages e.g. RTL/2, Coral 66, Jovial, C. n Both normally require operating system support. n High-level concurrent languages. Impetus from the software crisis. e.g. Ada, Chill, Modula-2, Mesa, Java. n No operating system support! n We will consider: –Java/Real-Time Java –C and Real-Time POSIX –Ada 95 –Also Modula-1 for device driving
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Real-Time Languages and OSs Hardware Operating System User Programs Typical OS Configuration Hardware Including Operating System Components User Program Typical Embedded Configuration
© Alan Burns and Andy Wellings, 2001 Summary n Two main classes of such systems have been identified: –hard real-time systems –soft real-time systems n The basic characteristics of a real-time or embedded computer system are: –largeness and complexity, –manipulation of real numbers, –extreme reliability and safety, –concurrent control of separate system components, –real-time control, –interaction with hardware interfaces, –efficient implementation.
Frank DrewsReal-Time Systems Introduction Frank Drews
Chapter 20- Embedded Systems Lecture 1. Topics covered Embedded systems design Architectural patterns Timing analysis Real-time operating systems.
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1 Note content copyright © 2004 Ian Sommerville. NU-specific content copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Real-time Software Design IS301.
1 Operating-System Structures Operating System & its purpose Operating Systems lead to new Hardware Features System Components System Services System Calls.
©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 14 Slide 1 Object-oriented Design 1.
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Operating Systems Part I: Introduction. “I think that there is a world market for five computers” - Thomas J. Watson (1945)
Chapter 6 – Architectural Design 1Chapter 6 Architectural design Software Engineering Ian Sommerville, Software Engineering, 9 th Edition Pearson.
5038/2009: The Electronic Society Systems Thinking, Systems Sciences & Systems Modelling.
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. 2.2 Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Operating System Services User Operating System Interface System Calls.
1 Note content copyright © 2004 Ian Sommerville. NU-specific content copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Critical Systems Development IS301.
©Ian Sommerville 2000Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 29Slide 1 Chapter 29 Configuration Management.
Chapter 7 – Design and Implementation Lecture 1 1Chapter 7 Design and implementation.
OS Components and Structure Hank Levy. OS Structure l To understand an OS, let’s first look at its components and then how they’re composed or organized.
Types of Information systems BY, Ikhlaq Ikhlaq. IS ACTIVE DIFFERENT LEVELS Operational-level systems Operational-level systems Support operational managers.
Chapter 6 Architectural Design Slide 1 Chapter 6 Architectural Design.
Structured Design The Structured Design Approach (also called Layered Approach) focuses on the conceptual and physical level. As discussed earlier: Conceptual.
Vipul Patel Ideas … Please …
Chapter 7 – Design and Implementation 1Chapter 7 Design and implementation Note: These are a modified version of Ch 7 slides available from the authors.
Adapted from the slides prepared by Alan Feuer Some material from Operating System Concepts by Silberschatz et. al. and Modern Operating Systems by Tanenbaum.
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013 Operating System Concepts – 9 th Edition Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures.
©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 6 Slide 1 Software Requirements.
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