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© Wiley 2007 Chapter 7 – Just-in-Time and Lean Systems Operations Management by R. Dan Reid & Nada R. Sanders 3rd Edition © Wiley 2007 PowerPoint Presentation by R.B. Clough – UNH M. E. Henrie - UAA
© Wiley 2007 Learning Objectives Explain the core beliefs of the JIT philosophy Describe the meaning of waste in JIT Explain the differences between push and pull systems Explain the key elements of JIT manufacturing
© Wiley 2007 Learning Objectives - continued Explain the elements of TQM and their role in JIT Describe the role of people in JIT and why respect for people is so important Understand impact of JIT on service and manufacturing Understand functional impact of JIT on all areas
© Wiley 2007 Just-in-Time JIT philosophy means getting the right quantity of goods at the right place and the right time JIT exceeds the concept of inventory reduction JIT is an all-encompassing philosophy found on eliminating waste Waste is anything that does not add value A broad JIT view is one that encompasses the entire organization
© Wiley 2007 Philosophy of Just-in-Time JIT originated in Japan, post WWII Driven by a need survive after the devastation caused by the war JIT gained worldwide prominence in the 1970s Toyota Motor Co. developed JIT
© Wiley 2007 The Philosophy of JIT - continued Often termed Lean Systems All waste must be eliminated- non value items Broad view that entire organization must focus on the same goal - serving customers JIT is built on simplicity- the simpler the better Focuses on improving every operation- Continuous improvement - Kaizen Visibility – all problems must be visible to be identified and solved Flexibility to produce different models/features
© Wiley 2007 Three Elements of JIT
© Wiley 2007 Three Elements of JIT - continued JIT manufacturing focuses on production system to achieve value-added manufacturing TQM is an integrated effort designed to improve quality performance at every level Respect for people rests on the philosophy that human resources are an essential part of JIT philosophy
© Wiley 2007 Elements of JIT Manufacturing JIT Manufacturing is a philosophy of value- added manufacturing Achieved by Inventory reduction - exposes problems Kanbans & pull production systems Small lots & quick setups Uniform plant loading Flexible resources Efficient facility layouts
© Wiley 2007 Role of Inventory Reduction Inventory = Lead Time (less is better) Inventory hides problems
© Wiley 2007 The Pull System
© Wiley 2007 Number of Kanbans Required N = number of containers D = demand rate at the withdraw station T = lead time from supply station C = container size S = safety stock
© Wiley 2007 Computing the Number of Kanbans: an aspirin manufacturer has converted to JIT manufacturing using kanban containers. They wish to determine the number of containers at the bottle filling operation which fills at a rate of 200 per hour. Each container holds 25 bottles, it takes 30 minutes to receive more bottles, safety stock is 10% of demand during LT.
© Wiley 2007 Small Lot Sizes & Quick Setups Small lots mean less average inventory and shorten manufacturing lead time Small lots with shorter setup times increase flexibility to respond to demand changes Strive for single digit setups- < 10 minutes Setup reduction process is well-documented External tasks- do as much preparation while present job is still running Internal tasks- simplify, eliminate, shorten steps involved with location, clamping, & adjustments Ultimate goal is single unit lot sizes
© Wiley 2007 Uniform Plant Loading A level schedule is developed so that the same mix of products is made every day in small quantities Leveling the schedule can have big impact along whole supply chain
© Wiley 2007 Flexible Resources Moveable, general purpose equipment: Portable equipment with plug in power/air E.g.: drills, lathes, printer-fax-copiers, etc. Capable of being setup to do many different things with minimal setup time Multifunctional workers: Workers assume considerable responsibility Cross-trained to perform several different duties Trained to also be problem solvers
© Wiley 2007 Effective Facility Layouts Workstations in close physical proximity to reduce transport & movement Streamlined flow of material Often use: Cellular Manufacturing (instead of process focus) U-shaped lines: (allows material handler to quickly drop off materials & pick up finished work)
© Wiley 2007 Traditional Process Focused Layout Jumbled flows, long cycles, difficult to schedule
© Wiley 2007 JIT Cellular Manufacturing Product focused cells, flexible equipment, high visibility, easy to schedule, short cycles
© Wiley 2007 JIT and TQM- Partners Build quality into all processes Focus on continuous improvement - Kaizen Quality at the source- sequential inspection Jidoka (authority to stop line) Poka-yoke (fail-safe all processes) Preventive maintenance- scheduled Work environment- everything in its place, a place for everything
© Wiley 2007 Respect for People: The Role of Employees Genuine and meaningful respect for associates Willingness to develop cross-functional skills JIT uses bottom-round management – consensus management by committees or teams Actively engage in problem-solving (quality circles) Everyone is empowered Everyone is responsible for quality: understand both internal and external customer needs
© Wiley 2007 Respect for People: The Role of Employees Associates gather performance data Team approaches used for problem-solving Decisions made from bottom-up Everyone is responsible for preventive maintenance
© Wiley 2007 The Role of Management Responsible for culture of mutual trust Serve as coaches & facilitators Support culture with appropriate incentive system including non-monetary Responsible for developing workers Provide multi-functional training Facilitate teamwork
© Wiley 2007 Supplier Relationships and JIT Use single-source suppliers when possible Build long-term relationships Work together to certify processes Co-locate facilities to reduce transport if possible Stabilize delivery schedules Share cost & other information Early involvement during new product designs
© Wiley 2007 Benefits of JIT Reduction in inventories Improved quality Shorter lead times Lower production costs Increased productivity Increased machine utilization Greater flexibility
© Wiley 2007 Implementing JIT Starts with a company shared vision of where it is and where it wants to go Management needs to create the right atmosphere Implementation needs a designated Champion Implement the sequence of following steps Make quality improvements Reorganize workplace Reduce setup times
© Wiley 2007 Implementing JIT - continued Reduce lot sizes & lead times Implement layout changes Cellular manufacturing & close proximity Switch to pull production Develop relationship with suppliers
© Wiley 2007 JIT in Services Most of the JIT concepts apply equally to Service companies Improved quality such as timeliness, service consistency, and courtesy Uniform facility loading to provide better service responsiveness Use of multifunction workers Reduction in cycle time Minimizing setup times and parallel processing Workplace organization
© Wiley 2007 JIT across the organization JIT eliminates organizational barriers and improves communications Accounting changes or relies on activity-based costing Marketing by interfacing with the customers Finance approves and evaluates financial investments Information systems create the network of information necessary for JIT to function
© Wiley 2007 Chapter 7 Highlights JIT is a philosophy that was developed by the Toyota Motor Company in the mid-1970s. It has since become the standard of operation for many industries. It focuses on simplicity, eliminating waste, taking a broad view of operations, visibility, and flexibility. Three key elements of this philosophy are JIT manufacturing, total quality management, and respect for people. JIT views waste as anything that does not add value.
© Wiley 2007 Chapter 7 Highlights Traditional manufacturing systems use push production, where as JIT uses pull production. Push systems anticipate future demand and produce in advance in order to have products in place when demand occurs. This system usually results in excess inventory. Pull systems work backwards. They last workstation in the production line requests the precise amounts of materials required.
© Wiley 2007 Chapter 7 Highlights (Continued) JIT manufacturing is a coordinated production system that enables the right quantities or parts to arrive when they are needed precisely where they are needed. Key elements of JIT manufacturing are the pull system and kanban production, small lot sizes and quick setups, uniform plant loading, flexible resources, and streamlined layout.
© Wiley 2007 Chapter 7 Highlights (Continued) TQM creates an organizational culture that defines quality as seen by the customer. The concepts of continuous improvement and quality at the source are integral to allowing for continual growth and the goal of identifying the causes of quality problems.
© Wiley 2007 Chapter 7 Highlights (Continued) JIT considers people to be the organizations most important resource. JIT is equally applicable in service organizations, particularly with the push toward time-based competition and the need to cut costs. JIT success is dependent on interfunctional coordination and effort.
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