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This slide show is part of a workshop given by Tom McIntyre (Dr. Mac)

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1 This slide show is part of a workshop given by Tom McIntyre (Dr. Mac)
This slide show is part of a workshop given by Tom McIntyre (Dr. Mac)

2 Differential Reinforcement Procedures
While you’re waiting… Your “Do Now” Activity Consider the 3 words found at the top of this screen. Based on the title, what do you think that these procedures are designed to accomplish? What is their intent and goal? List some behaviors (displayed by students), witnessed or hearsay, that you believe are totally unacceptable in the classroom. Which behaviors do you find to be irritating or disruptive, but would tolerate if they were displayed infrequently.

3 So… what are “differential reinforcement procedures”?

4 The DRs Reduction of inappropriate behaviors through the use of structured administration of reinforcement. DRO - Differential Reinforcement of Other behaviors DRI - Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior DRA - Differential Reinforcement of Alternative behaviors DRL - Differential Reinforcement of Low rates of behavior Differential reinforcement is defined as the process of reinforcing an appropriate behavior in the presence of one stimulus, and simultaneously, not reinforcing an inappropriate behavior in the presence of another stimulus. DRO - the individual is reinforced for not exhibiting the target behavior during a specific period of time. Occurrences of the target behavior are ignored. Of course, the individual is reinforced for exhibiting appropriate behavior in other circumstances. (fighting, cursing, name calling, threats, talking back, destruction of property - if the behavior is dangerous and cannot be ignored DRO should not be applied.) DRI - the individual is systematically reinforcing a behavior that is in opposition to or incompatible behaviors. Following directions vs noncompliance, name calling vs using an appropriate or proper name, talking at inappropriate times vs being quiet at appropriate times, off task vs on task, in seat vs out of seat, sleeping in class vs not sleeping in class, being tardy vs being on time, messy or incomplete work vs neat or complete work DRL - applied to gradually reduce the behavior by reinforcing progressively lower rates of behavior. (habits, do not need to be reduced rapidly, and do not need to be reduced to zero)

5 Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors (DRO)
The student is reinforced for withholding the inappropriate behavior for a designated period of time. Only “zero displays” of the inappropriate behavior during the time period are reinforced. DRO is “omission training”… a student is reinforced for the absence (rather than the presence) of behavior. “Pure” DRO requires that reinforcement be given no matter what other behaviors are displayed. (So focus on the behavior of most concern)

6 Steps for Applying DRO An interval of time is figured from observation data. Reinforcement is given if the undesirable behavior was NOT emitted during the designated time interval. (Usually) Any display of the inappropriate behavior results in a re-setting of the clock (start another time interval)

7 Interresponse Time (IRT)
“IRT” is the average amount of time that elapses between displays of the inappropriate behavior. Calculating IRT is a way to determine an appropriate interval length for DRO (and DRL) schedules. This time period (or one slightly higher or lower) becomes the initial interval during which the student must withhold the inappropriate behavior (in order to obtain reinforcement).

8 An Example of Calculating IRT
Cliff uses “inappropriate physical contact” (push, poke, slap) toward other students an average of 9 times during the 6 hour school day. A DRO intervention is planned. To determine the IRT during which Cliff must refrain from “negative touch” in order to obtain reinforcement, 9 (events) is divided into 6 (hours). Cliff uses negative physicality toward peers 1½ times per hour. Next, his teacher divided 1½ into 60 (minutes in an hour). The number obtained, 40, indicates the average number of minutes that pass between physical contacts. An interval length of 40 minutes is set as the amount of time that he must refrain from physically contacting peers in order to obtain reinforcement. Data will continue to be collected, and new IRTs calculated. An Example of Calculating IRT “My name is Cliff. Drop over some time.”

9 Calculating the DRO Interval
# of time intervals (minutes, periods, hours, days) # of times the behavior was witnessed Carmen cursed 6 times in 30 minutes. 30 = But 5 what? 6 5 of the time intervals that we were using in our calculation (minutes)

10 Another… During a 20 minute observation, Kanae displayed 8 short “scripting” incidents. What is your reinforcement interval? 20 = ? 8 2½ But 2½ what? Minutes. Kanae must go 150 seconds with NO displays of scripting in order to receive reinforcement.

11 Considerations When Using DRO?
Because reinforcement is delivered if a student does NOT perform the identified behavior, teachers run the risk of positively reinforcing a variety of other inappropriate behavior (Instead, use DRI or DRA) Teachers might create a “behavioral vacuum” for students who do not possess a large repertoire of appropriate behaviors because DRO reinforces the absence of behavior. The selected reinforcer must be at least as powerful as the one obtained when performing the inappropriate behavior.

12 Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI)
Select & reinforce a particular behavior that is topographically incompatible with the inappropriate one. The two behaviors cannot coexist. The promotion of the new behavior interferes with, and thus “cancels out” the undesirable action. The new behavior prevents the old one from surfacing.

13 DRI Student puts head down & sleeps: Reinforce staying awake (perhaps have him/her stand and/or walk with a clipboard). The incompatible behavior is often the “opposite” action. Considerations & Cautions? FBA should have been conducted to determine reason for the behavior The student must be able to perform the replacement behavior Start with a CRF schedule of reinforcement & fade it out

14 Groups: What is incompatible with…?
Being out of one’s seat? Having one’s hand in mouth? Cutting class? Making rude remarks when given a direction by a teacher? Hitting oneself on side of head with fist when presented with a task? Can be a “frequency” action (rude remarks) OR a “duration” action (Hand in mouth)

15 Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)
Closely related to DRI: A preferred alternative to the undesirable behavior is reinforced… Nicki tends to push others when the class lines up. He will now be the official “tissue box carrier” at the end of the line, ready to run forward is someone sneezes. Unlike DRI, the replacement response is dissimilar, but not topographically incompatible with the present behavior. Examples? Say “Thank you.” instead of nodding head. Saying “yes” instead of “no when given a direction.

16 DRA When the student displays the inappropriate behavior, the teacher redirects the student to the chosen alternative behavior. Note: Sometimes DRA is used in conjunction with a mild punisher if the student continues to exhibit the inappropriate behavior. To replace the undesirable action, the alternative must:? Meet the same need/function/purpose, and/or Bring the same amount of benefits

17 Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior (DRL)
Unlike DRO (which requires zero responding), DRL allows inappropriate behavior IF it is at a more tolerable level. Reinforcement is provided for a lessened display of the undesirable behavior during a designated period of time. So, my errant scholar… How low can you go?

18 DRL Procedure: Benefits?
Conduct “baseline” recording to determine average number of displays. Decide whether to have “penalty clauses” for failure to reach the goal. Decide whether to have “incentive clauses” for performance that is better than the goal that was set. Meet with the student & set a goal of N-1 (or a greater reduction). Reinforce the student for meeting the goal. Benefits? Good for building self-control over strong non-violent habits Disadvantages? Slow process which is not appropriate for violent behaviors. For which behaviors might DRL be appropriate? (next slide)

19 DRL Curse words Tearing up work
Number of staples used to secure document. Work mistakes Talk outs Burps / Animal noises Just about anything, except behaviors that are? Violent towards others “You sent only 2 kids to the hospital today.” Self-destructive “You met your goal of trying to commit suicide only 4 times this week.”

20 Guidelines for Using DRL
Baseline must be recorded in order to determine the average number of responses per time period. This average occurrence may then serve as the initial DRL limit. Huh? “Reasonably spaced criteria should be established when using successively decreasing DRL limits to avoid too frequent reinforcement and ratio strain, and so that the program can be faded out.” Decide whether or not to provide feedback to the student(s) concerning the cumulative number of responses up to that point in the session. ~

21 Differential Reinforcement Comparisons & Considerations
Both DRI & DRA strengthen appropriate behaviors. DRO & DRL do not. DRL is the only DR intervention that allows reinforcement even though the inappropriate behavior surfaces. DRI, DRA, & DRL typically result in gradual behavior changes. DRO is probably the intervention of choice when the behavior is dangerous to self or others; it most often results in rapid reduction in behavior.

22 Clickers Which DR procedure?
For each day that no negative physical contact occurs, the class earns hot cocoa & granola bar bites during first period the next day. (The students are also engaging in anger management training.) DRA DRI DRL DRO

23 Clickers Which DR procedure?
A student’s behavior that is targeted for reduction is “complaining, hesitating, or refusing when given a direction from the teacher”. The student will receive 1 point (toward the 10 needed to visit the classroom store) for compliance within 10 seconds of the command. DRA DRI DRL DRO

24 Clickers Which DR procedure?
A distractible student is reinforced for each 4 minute period that s/he was “on task” (engaged in the assigned task or attentive to the speaker). DRA DRI DRL DRO

25 Clickers Which DR procedure?
A student is tardy an average of 18 of her 30 weekly classes. She is always on-time to “specials” (art, PE, etc.) & science and math classes. For each week that she attends 20 of her 30 classes, she will receive a “Magic school bus” video to take home for the weekend (borrowed from the children’s room in the local library). This plan is the positively stated version of: DRA DRI DRL DRO

26 Clickers Which DR procedure?
While still receiving a “demerit” for calling out an answer, the student is reinforced for each time s/he raises his/her hand with lips closed. DRA DRI DRL DRO

27 Clickers Which DR procedure?
The student will be reinforced for saying “Please” before saying “Give me the…”. DRA DRI DRL DRO

28 Another DRO IRT calculation
On the first day of school, Plato cries out “I want my mommy!” 75 times in 15 minutes. 15 = = 12 seconds (1/5 of a minute) 10 second reinforcement intervals 12 second reinforcement intervals 15 second reinforcement intervals 5 minute reinforcement intervals 5 hour reinforcement intervals

29 DR intervention steps Select the target behavior to be changed
Select the appropriate differential strategy DRI & DRA: Select the positive behavior replacement. Identify reinforcers to motivate & reward success Determine the criteria for success (What level of end-outcome is acceptable?) Begin the intervention Continue to collect data Evaluate the results of the intervention, & calculate new intervals.

30 Groups Which DRs might be appropriate? And how would they be used?
DRO DRI DRA DRL Nail biting Activating the fire alarm Homework rarely submitted Slams door to room upon entry Self-derogatory remarks (“I’m stupid.”) Difficulty keeping hands off of things & people Thumb sucking “Incessant talking” “Frequent bullying” “Endless complaining”

31 END

32 Developed by Tom McIntyre, Ph.D.

33 Activity Video of student engaging in action. Record & figure interval. Watch again

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