Presentation on theme: "Academic Learning Time A.L.T. 2006 Professional Development Program Springfield Public Schools Springfield, Massachusetts."— Presentation transcript:
Academic Learning Time A.L.T. 2006 Professional Development Program Springfield Public Schools Springfield, Massachusetts
Logistics Attendance Professional Development Points (PDPs) Payroll Start & End Time Location of training information Expectations of A.L.T. Information
Academic Learning Time (A.L.T.) A working definition: Academic Learning Time (ALT) is the amount of time and the quality of education time a student spends attending to relevant academic tasks while performing those tasks with a high rate of success. (Caldwell, Huitt, and Berliner)
Academic Learning Time ALT is that precise period when an instructional activity is perfectly aligned with the students readiness and learning occurs.
Overview and Goals To explore Academic Learning Time in relation to our curricular demands To distinguish between academic day and school day To plan to reclaim time for academic instruction To contrast quantity of time vs. quality time, i.e., evidence of learning.
Part I: The Context for A.L.T. is The Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for your content area If you dont know where you are going, youll end up are going, youll end up somewhere else. somewhere else. Yogi Berra Yogi Berra
The Curriculum: Focuses what teachers do. Connects what teachers do. Is necessary because all learning is cumulative. The effective teacher knows the grade level and content specific learning outcomes and appropriate instructional strategies and assessments to provide student with the opportunity to learn the knowledge they are expected to acquire. ALT and the Curriculum
Three elements of curricular quality control in schools: A Written Curriculum that can be translated into the work of teachers in classrooms; A taught curriculum shaped by the written curriculum; and A tested curriculum consisting of the assessment tools of pupil learning which are linked to both taught & written curriculum.
Curriculum Alignment The context for ALT is the curriculum framework for your content area.
In the School and Classroom Teaching is the work. Learning is the result of the work. Instruction is focused teaching.
Part II: The A.L.T. Theory Effective instruction maximizes the amount of time a student is both focused on learning at an appropriate difficulty level, and experiencing a high level of success. ALT is the portion of engaged time during which students are not only actively learning, but are learning successfully.
Despite our obsession with time, little attention is paid to HOW time is used. Its About TIME!
Attendance (Time in the seats) This varies with each individual student. Tameka 180 Days Jose 140 Days Sue 110 Days
School Year = 180 Days Attendance School Day Length 5 hours Tameka 180 Days Jose 140 Days Sue 110 Days
Constant School Year = 180 Days Little Control Attendance Constant School Day Length Allocated Time Little Control
Allocated time is that which the state, the district, school, or teacher provides the student for instruction. Sometimes it is called scheduled time. Allocated TIME
Constant School Year = 180 Days Allocated Time Little Control Allocated Time Instructional Time Little Control Attendance Constant School Day Length
Instructional Time Instructional time is actual time spent on instruction. Activity: What are the variables that impact instructional time? (Variables are not excuses.)
Huitt, Caldwell, Traver & Graeber found that student unengaged student behaviors could be classified as: management/transition socializing discipline unoccupied/observing, and out of the room.
Management/Transition Daily, routine classroom activities or in- between activities: Distributing, setting up, or gathering equipment, supplies, materials, etc. Taking roll Students standing in line Waiting for teachers help Listening to nonacademic directions Waiting for next activity to begin
Socializing Two or more persons are interacting socially: Whispering nonacademic comment to neighbor Passing notes Watching someone else whispering
Unoccupied/Observing Sitting or standing alone, wandering about with no evident purpose or goal, watching other people or unassigned activities, or playing with materials Staring out the window Aimless behaviors Watching another student do a different assignment
Out of the Room Gone to the: Bathroom Nurse Library Principals Office Guidance Office
Discipline Adult is reprimanding a student, a student is being punished, or student is watching other student being scolded. One student is being scolded and other students are listening Head on desk as punishment
Two of the five categories accounted for almost 90% of the unengaged behaviors: management/transition socializing discipline unoccupied/observing, and out of the room.
Decreasing Time Off-task Management/Transition Unoccupied/Observing Reference: Caldwell, J., Huitt, W., & French, V. Leaders guide for student engaged time. Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools, Inc.
Since Total Allocated Time (set) = Time On-task + Time Off-task, we can adopt the perspective to focus on decreasing time off-task. Self-audit Huitt, W., Caldwell, J., Traver, P. & Graeber A. (1981) Collecting information on student engaged time. Part III: Application 60 min. Allocated 15 min. Instructional Time 15 min. Engaged Time 30 min. Behavior, prep, regroup, intercom, etc.
Discuss the necessary reasons, if any, for time off-task during the school day and explain how you would decrease time off-task to increase Academic Learning Time and, thus, student achievement. Table Discussion (Optional Activity)
School Year = 180 Days Attendance School Day Length Allocated Time Instructional Time Engaged Time
Engaged time is the time that students appear to be paying attention to materials/presentations that have instructional goals. A synonym for engaged time is attention. This implies a mental attitude in which concentration is given voluntarily and steadily by all during the entire instruction. Engaged Time
School Year = 180 Days Attendance School Day Length Allocated Time Instructional Time Engaged Time Constant Planning & Checking
School Year = 180 Days Attendance School Day Length Allocated Time Instructional Time Engaged Time A.L.T.
Recap You know the context: curriculum. You know the theory of A.L.T. You know that you have to effectively use instruction by matching your instruction to your learners, being mindful of their needs. You know to constantly assess engaged time to increase academic learning.
Academic Learning Time is the only time when students are learning. Academic Learning TIME
ALT is that part of allocated time in any subject-matter area in which a student is engaged successfully in the activities or with the materials to which he/she is exposed and in which those activities and materials are related to educational outcomes. Definition of ALT
ALT is a complex concept made up of time on task, success rate, & allocated time; however, it is NOT simply a time-based concept. These are interdependent qualifiers. Any increase in any one yields a dramatic effect in ALT. Reclaiming TIME
Time Variable Daily Annual School Year -180 Days Attendance Year -170 Days School Day 5 to 5 1/2 hrs.800 to 935 hrs. Allocated Time (Basic Skills) 165 to 210 min. 440 to 595 hrs. Engagement Rate 60 to 75 % Engaged Time 99 to 158 min. 264 to 448 hrs. Content Overlap & Success Rate 50% to 70 % A.L.T. 50 to 111 min. + 61 min daily 133 to 314 hrs. + 181 HOURS
Recap You know the context of A.L.T. - Curriculum You know the theory of A.L.T. and which constructs you can and cannot control. You know that you increase Academic Learning Time (A.L.T.) by decreasing interference with those things over which you do have control.
A High Level of Academic Learning Time Students are covering important (tested/evaluated) content; Students are on-task most of the class period; and Students are successful on most of the assignments they complete.
Activity What specific strategies enhance learning? Direction: On the list provided, order the strategies in impact value on Academic Learning Time, beginning with the one that most promotes A.L.T. and ending with the one that least promotes A.L.T.
What specific strategies enhance learning? Tutorial Instruction Reinforcement Corrective Feedback Cues and Explanations Student Class Participation Student Time On-task Improved Reading/ Study Skills Cooperative Learning Homework (Graded) Classroom Morale Initial Cognitive Prerequisites Home Environment Intervention Peer & Cross-age Remedial Tutoring Homework (Assigned) Higher Order Questions New Sci. & Math Curricula Teacher Expectancy Peer Group Influence Advance Organizers Socioeconomic Status (Not alterable by Teacher)
Academic Learning Time 3 things you have learned 2 things that surprised you 1 thing you will include in your training in August 3 2 1
Discuss the difference between focusing on increasing on-task behavior in students and what you have learned about Academic Learning Time. Give specific, original examples, as opposed to generalizations, in your response. Discussion Question
How does a teachers classroom management plan, or lack thereof, affect Academic Learning Time.
The Theory Research data that informs our practices: Berliner, D. (1991). Whats all the fuss about instructional time? In M. Ben-Peretz & R. Bromme (Eds.), The nature of time in schools: Theoretical concepts, practitioner perceptions. New York: Teachers College Press. Retrieved March 2006, from http://courses.ed.asu.edu/berliner/readings/fuss/fuss.htm http://courses.ed.asu.edu/berliner/readings/fuss/fuss.htm Caldwell, J., Huitt, W., & French, V. Leaders guide for student engaged time. Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools, Inc. English, F. (1995). Developing, aligning, and auditing curriculum. Salt Lake City: The Video Journal of Education. Huitt, W., Caldwell, J., Traver, P., & Graeber, A. (1981). Collecting information on student engaged time. In D. Helms, A. Graeber, J. Caldwell, & W. Huitt (Eds.). Leaders guide for student engaged time. Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools, Inc. Wang, M., Haertel, G., & Walberg, H. What helps students learn? Educational Leadership, 1993. Retrieved April 2006, from http://www.ascd.org/readingroom/edlead/9312/wang.html