Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol Miklos Maroti, Branislav Kusy, Gyula Simon and Akos Ledeczi Vanderbilt University.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol Miklos Maroti, Branislav Kusy, Gyula Simon and Akos Ledeczi Vanderbilt University."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol Miklos Maroti, Branislav Kusy, Gyula Simon and Akos Ledeczi Vanderbilt University

2 Contributions Better understanding of the uncertainties of radio message delivery and new techniques to reduce their effect FTSP time stamping (single-hop time synchronization) –Uses a single radio message to synchronize sender and receiver(s) –The most basic time synchronization primitive –1.4 μs average, 4.2 μs maximum error on the MICA2 –Implemented on MICA2, MICA2DOT and MICAZ FTSP multi-hop time synchronization –Synchronizes all nodes to an elected leader –Constant network load: 1 message per 30 seconds per node –Continuous operation, startup time is network diameter times 60 seconds –Fault tolerant: nodes can enter and leave the network, links can fail, nodes can be mobile, topology can change –Platform independent: uses the time stamping module

3 Time synchronization Need for time synchronization –common reference points between neighbors –at sensing to obtain a global time-stamp –synchronized sensing and actuation –time arithmetic in local and global time Classification of algorithms –Global time source: internal vs. external –Lifetime: on-demand vs. continuous –Scope: all nodes vs. subsets vs. pairs –Time transformation: local clock adjustment vs. local and global time pair vs. timescale transformation –Clock drift: offset vs. skew and offset compensation –Local clock: CPU (high resolution, no power management, not stable) vs. external crystal –Method: sender–receiver vs. receiver– receiver –Time stamping: MAC layer vs. user space Previous approaches –Network Time Protocol (NTP) –Reference Broadcast Synchronization (RBS) –Timing-sync Protocol for Sensor Networks (NTSP) –Etc. Metrics –It is NOT only end-to-end accuracy –Network load (in messages per seconds per nodes) –Start-up time (as the function of the diameter) –Fault tolerance nodes entering and leaving incorrect and unstable local clocks topology changes –Scalability

4 Radio message propagation access time: delay incurred waiting for access to the transmit channel interrupt handling time: The delay between the radio chip raising and the microcontroller responding to an interrupt encoding time: the time it takes the radio chip to encode and transform a part of the message to electromagnetic waves propagation time: time it takes for the electromagnetic wave to travel from sender to receiver decoding time: the time it takes on the receiver side to transform and decode to binary representation byte alignment time: delay incurred because of different byte alignment of the sender and receiver

5 FTSP time stamping Time synchronization primitive: establishing time reference points between a sender and receiver(s) using a single radio message –Sender obtains timestamp when the message was actually sent in its own local time –The message can contain the local time of the sender at the time of transmission (or the elapsed time since an event) –Receiver obtains timestamp when the message was received in its own local time Algorithm –Multiple time stamps are made both on the sender and receiver sides at byte boundaries –The time stamps are normalized, and statistically processed and a single time stamp is made both on the sender and receiver sides –The final time stamp on the sender side can be embedded in the message Uses –time synchronization protocols –acoustic ranging –shooter localization (implicit time synchronization while routing) S R1R1 R2R2 R3R3 S R1R1 R2R2 R3R3 transmission / reception time stamping error elapsed time since event event

6 0132 Time stamping on MICA2 platform hw and sw delay (~1386 μs) bit-offset (~0-365 μs) time stamp sync … hw interrupt min average headerdata sender receiver byte (~417 μs) sw interrupt handling delay (95% 0-1 μs) (5% 1-20 μs) MICA2: 1.4 μs average error, 4.2 μs maximum error MICA2DOT: 4 μs average, 12 μs maximum error Limiting factor: the stability of the CPU clock

7 FTSP time synchronization Local and global time –Each node maintains both a local and a global time. Past and future time instances are translated between the two formats –Both the clock offset and skew between the local and global clocks are estimated using linear regression –Optimized to increase the numerical precision of calculations by normalizing the clock skew to zero (working with skew minus one) –Handles local and global clock overflows (uses 32-bit integers) Hierarchy –Global time is synchronized to the local time of an elected leader –Utilizes asynchronous diffusion: each node sends one synchronization msg per 30 seconds, constant network load –Sequence number, incremented only be the elected leader –Continuous operation, startup time is network diameter times 60 seconds Robustness –If leader fails, new leader is elected automatically. The new leader keeps the offset and skew of the old global time –Fault tolerant: nodes can enter and leave the network, links can fail, nodes can be mobile, topology can change Platform independent: uses the time stamping module 15 leader sequence numbers

8 FTSP experimental evaluation 1 st leader turned off random nodes turned off/on 50% turned off all turned back on all turned on topology: avg. error: 1.6 μs max. error: 6.1 μs per hop

9 Comparison to RBS and TPSN Reference Broadcast Synchronization (RBS) –Uncompensated delays: propagation, decoding, byte alignment, interrupt handling and receive times –Network overhead: 1.5 msgs per synchronization period –Hierarchy: clustered with timescale transformation Timing-sync Protocol for Sensor Networks (TPSN) –Uncompensated delays: encoding, decoding, interrupt handling times –Network overhead: 2 msgs per synchronization period –Hierarchy: spanning tree Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol (FTSP) –Uncompensated delays: propagation time –Network overhead: 1 msg per synchronization period –Hierarchy: flooding –End-to-end accuracy: average 1.6 μs per hop, max 6.1 μs per hop on MICA2 –Robustness: nodes can enter and leave the network, links can fail, nodes can move –Startup: 2x diameter many synchronization periods FTSP time stamping –singe radio message –0 or 4 bytes overhead per msg –1.4 μs average, 4.2 μs maximum error on MICA2

10 Conclusion Time stamping: new time synchronization primitive –time synchronization protocols –synchronized sensing / actuation –power management CPU clock cycle precision –the effects of discrete time –separate local and global times –how to sense and actuate with this precision Robustness and scalability –startup and convergence time –scaling to nodes –power management One size does not fit all –need a spectrum of time synchronization algorithms –application specific and integrated solutions


Download ppt "The Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol Miklos Maroti, Branislav Kusy, Gyula Simon and Akos Ledeczi Vanderbilt University."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google