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… you don’t need to write down

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1 … you don’t need to write down
List the three branches of our government and their function. Name the two chambers of Congress What do think should be the qualifications/education to be a member of Congress?


3 Congress

4 U.S. Capitol Floor Plan

5 House of Representatives

6 Senate

7 The chart below details the demographic breakdown of each party in the Senate:

8 Congress Chart Congress consists of two houses:
CONGRESS CHART (Answer Key) Congress consists of two houses: House of Representatives and Senate. Congress Chart Congress consists of two houses: House of Representatives and Senate House of Representatives Senate Qualifications for Office (Age, Length of Citizenship, and Residence) 1. At least 25 years old 1. At least 30 years old 2. Must be a U.S. citizen for at least 7 years 2. Must be a U.S. citizen for at least 9 years 3. must live in the district/State from which elected 3. must live in the State from which elected

9 House of Representatives Term of Office/ Elections
Congress Chart House of Representatives Senate Term of Office/ Elections Elected every two years Elected every six years. One third of the Senate is up for elections every two years. State Representation Representation based on population Two senators per State Total Members 435 members 100 senators

10 Congressional Apportionment
The 435 seats in the House are reapportioned among the States every ten years.

11 House of Representatives Appointments of the President
Congress Chart House of Representatives Senate Impeachment Process Power to impeach or accuse high government officials Exclusive power to try those impeach Revenue Bill All bills that raise money must originate in the house May amend any revenue bill Treaties n/a Approve treaties Appointments of the President Confirm appointments of the President

12 House of Representatives
Congress Chart House of Representatives Senate Leader(s) Speaker of the House (from majority party) 1. Vice-President presides over the Senate (vote only to break a tie) 2. President pro-tempore to preside when the Vice-President is not here Salary $174,000 per year Benefits Special tax deduction, travel allowance, full medical care, retirement plan, offices, staff and operation funds, gyms, free parking

13 Congress Organization Chart
House of Representatives Senate Vice-President Speaker of the House Majority Leader Minority Leader President Pro-Tempore Majority Whip Minority Whip Majority Leader Minority Leader Committee Chairs Majority Whip Minority Whip Committee Chairs

14 How is the Speaker of the House Selected?
Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution states: "The House of Representatives shall chose their Speaker and other Officers." The Speaker is elected by roll call vote when each new House first convenes. Customarily, the conference of each major party nominates a candidate whose name is placed in nomination.

15 Presiding Officers Speaker of the House is Paul Ryan
Presides over all sessions Keeps order

16 House Leaders House Majority Leader – Kevin McCarthy (R)
House Minority Leader – Nancy Pelosi (D)

17 How is the President Pro Tempore elected?
A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the vice president. The president pro tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.

18 In his absence, the President Pro Tempore, Orin Hatch, takes over
President of the Senate, is Mike Pence (also the Vice President of the U.S.) recognizes members puts questions to a vote may vote only to break a tie In his absence, the President Pro Tempore, Orin Hatch, takes over elected by the Senate member of the majority party

19 Leaders in the Senate Senate majority Leader – Mitch McConnell (R)
Senate minority leader— Check Schumer

20 Tennessee’s Leaders in Washington
List TN’s senators (2) List Members of House of Representatives (9) 1. 2.

21 Conclusion Which house is more powerful and prestigious, the H.O.R. or the Senate? List at least 3 reasons. 1. 2. 3.

22 Warm-Up Which house is more powerful and prestigious, the H.O.R. or the Senate? List at least 3 reasons. 1. 2. 3.

23 How a Bill Becomes a Law

24 Videos School House of Rock: (3:20) Family Guy: (0:11) Saturday Night Live: (3:30)

25 How a Bill Becomes a Law The main function of Congress is to make laws. Between 5,000 and 10,000 bills are introduced each year in Congress but only about 5% become laws. The same version of a bill has to be approved by both the House and the Senate before it can be signed by the President.


27 STEP 1 Introduced in the House or Senate for consideration Born
Numbered -Bills often born in the Executive Branch or in Special Interests Groups or Private Citizens, or standing committees -Every bill is numbers ex. H.R is the 3,410 measure introduced in the house during the congressional term -Read three times-old parliamentary tradition, after first reading Speaker refers it to Committe

28 There are 20 standing committees in the House and 17 in the Senate today.

29 STEP 2 Committee Action Referred to a standing committee for study, hearings, revisions, and approval Pigeon hole (many bills ignored and left aside to “die”) Const mks no mention of Committees Smtms called “little legislatures’’ Standing committees act as sieves (sifting through as many bills as possible and keeping the good ones) Fate of bills decided in Congress-Pigeonhold in committee-die If they keep the bill- goes to subcommitties-hold public hearings, see witnesses -junkets-trips to locations that affect the measure-made at public expense but on the spot investigations often prove to be the best way a committee can inform itself. -subcommittee has completed its full work goes to the full committee -determines how the bill will proceed Committees kept bills go to subcommittees -Junkets, trips that will affect a bill, paid for by taxpayers

30 STEP 3 Floor Action Placed on calendar Debated
Filibuster (only in Senate)* Passed or defeated - House-5 different calendars-must go through the rules committee -Union Calendar, house calendar, private calendar, corrections calendar, discharge calendar -Senate-one calendar -House- determing how long you can debate-one hour -Senate-no time limit –two speech rule (cant talk more than two times on same question -can demand a vote,if adopted , debate ends -Voting- -if amendments are added each one has to be voted upon -vote on each motion like laying the bill aside for later date -4 ways to vote in the house voice votes (ayes, nays) standing vote teller voting-almost never happens today bc of electronic voting-Senate does not use roll call vote

31 *Filibuster An attempt to talk the bill to death only in Senate
Senator Strom Thurmond (24 hrs, 18 min) Rules (have to stand up) The Cloture Rule (at least 60 senators must approve) -stalling tatic that minority leaders use to seek or delay or prevent senate from acting on the measure -monopolize a bill Senator Strom Thurmond set the record- held the floor for 24 hrs and 18 min in an unsucessuful, one person effort agaist the Civil Rts act of 1957 -Rules that are strictly enforced- must stand, lean on their desk, walk about as they speak, use unparliamentarily language -The Cloture Rule- limiting debate-brought into play only on special procedure invoking the rule is hard- allows for only 30 hrs from that pt that the senate can spend on that measure.

32 Senator Rand Paul 12-hour Filibuster

33 STEP 4 Conference Committee
Once a bill passes both the House and Senate, it goes to a Conference Committee Resolves differences between House & Senate versions of bill When the House and Senate have 2 versions of the same bill and cant come to an agreement-temp joint committee to iron out differences Cant include any new material however in practice make chges that were not even considered in either house -once a compromise has come about sent bk to both houses to approve or not approve -rarely does either house turn down either houses work

34 STEP 5 Congressional Approval House & Senate vote on final passage
Approved bill is sent to President

35 STEP 6 Presidential Action (4 options) signs bill within 10 days
vetoes bill* allows bill to become law without signing Pocket Veto* Sign bill-goes into law Veto the bill-refuse to sign-return to where bill originated, together with pres veto msg , congress may pass bill w/o pres approval (2/3 vote) Not signing the bill but goes into effect after 10 days Pocket veto-congress adjourns w/in 10 days of submitting a bill to Pres and Pres does not sign the act does not go into effect

36 *Vetoed Bills Vetoed bills return to Congress
Veto may be overridden by 2/3 vote of each house

37 *Pocket Veto If Congress adjourns its session within 10 days of submitting a bill to the President, and the President does not act, the bill dies.


39 Review In which house do revenue bills have to be introduced?
During which step do most bills die? How can the Senate end a filibuster? About how many bills become law each year?

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