# Pattern Finding and Pattern Discovery in Time Series

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Pattern Finding and Pattern Discovery in Time Series
Long Q Tran College of Computing, Georgia Tech Trần Quốc Long College of Computing, Georgia Tech

Contents Pattern Finding & Pattern Discovery
Pattern Finding & Pattern Discovery in Time Series Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) Summary

Pattern Finding Problems: given observed patterns O1, O2, … OK, specify which pattern the new data X possess? Other names: pattern recognition, pattern classification Examples Recognition: matching fingerprints of the claimant with those of authorized personnel.

Pattern Finding Patterns are known beforehand and are observed/described by Explicit samples Similar samples (usually) Modeling approaches: Build a model for each pattern Find the best fit model for new data Usually require training using observed samples

Pattern Discovery Patterns are not known
But data which are believed to possess patterns are given Examples: Clustering: grouping similar samples into clusters Associative rule mining: discover certain features that often appear together in data

Contents Pattern Finding & Pattern Discovery
Pattern Finding & Pattern Discovery in Time Series Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) Summary

Time Series Data are sampled over time X = X1 X2 … Xt … XL
Xt : data sampled at time t L : sequence length Xt are NOT independently and identically distributed (NOT i.d.d) In other words, Xt may come from different processes that are dependent of each other

Pattern Finding in Time Series
Examples In control, certain pattern of sensor signals indicate critical point of the production process In stock, certain pattern (up/down) of price indicate the trend of the market People often have to look at the graph by their own eyes and act accordingly when spotting known pattern X. Ge & P. Smyth (2000): detecting end-point in plasma etch (semiconductor manufacturing)

Pattern Finding in Time Series
Problems: Data may contain one or more patterns inside Data can be multi-dimensional (i.e. look at multiple graphs at the same time) Automated pattern finding is crucial when time series are lengthy and multi-dimensional

Pattern Discovery in Time Series
Goals: From collected data, discover Replicated, interesting patterns Associative rule on patterns (can use to predict trends of time series)

Pattern Modeling in Time Series
Both pattern finding and pattern discovery need modeling Desired properties of the model The model can be built or trained using observed data The similarity of new data and the model can be easily computed

Contents Pattern Finding & Pattern Discovery
Pattern Finding & Pattern Discovery in Time Series Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) Summary

Hidden Markov Models (HMMs)
One way to model time series pattern Assumptions: Xt is generated from certain probability distribution Yt (called state) Number of states is finite (i.e. finite sources of data) State transition follows Markov property X1 Y1 X2 Y2 XL YL 1 2 0.6 0.4 1 2 0.4 0.6

Hidden Markov Models (HMMs)
Parameters to estimate: Transition probabilities Distribution parameters in each state Estimation procedure: Initialization: k-means, viterbi training Iterative training: forward-backward procedure (EM algorithm) Variants of HMM: Mixture of HMMs: allow many HMMs computed simultaneously State durational HMM: allow a state remains for a duration

Mixture of HMMs Assumption: Mixture of HMMs allows
There are different processes (pattern) that generate the time series Each process can be represented by a HMM Mixture of HMMs allows Packing all pattern models in one place Identifying the processes that generate the time series Training be efficiently implemented

Experiment Experiment settings Generate 200 sequences for each HMM
1 2 0.6 0.4 1 2 0.4 0.6 Experiment settings Generate 200 sequences for each HMM After 200 iterations 2 Gaussian:  = 0,  = 1 1 Gaussian:  = 2,  = 1 2 11 = -0.07, 11 = 0.97 21 = 2.01, 21 = 0.99 12 = 1.90, 12 = 1.10 22 = -0.01, 22 = 0.98

Summary Automated pattern finding and pattern discovery in time series are needed HMMs and its variants can model time series patterns Parameters can be efficiently initialized and estimated using observed data

 = (transition prob., distribution params.)
Appendix: HMMs Parameters:  = (transition prob., distribution params.) Recognition Calculate P(X1X2…XL |) Forward procedure Estimation: Maximize L() = P(X1X2…XL |) EM algorithm: forward – backward procedure Clustering Find Viterbi algorithm