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Start This CD provides information for disabled employees, employers and other employees about employment of disabled people.

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2 Start This CD provides information for disabled employees, employers and other employees about employment of disabled people.


4 Participation Of People With Disability To Work Life The Reasons Of Why People With Disability Should Work Set People With Disability Up Work Employment Application Forms Start to Work and First Training What Should Supposed To Do In Working Places Where Employ People With Disability Arrangements for Workers with Disability in Working Place Supports Which Needs to Be Done for People with Disability in Working Place


6 THE REASON OF EMPLOYMENT OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITY The countries,which have the perception of social state in whole world, provide area of employment to all citizens without discrimination and present activities about labour training according to their skills and capabilities. In this subject, there are no so important differences about provided labour opportunities between normal and people with disability. Give a Chane Them to Express Themselves in Work Life

7 Get over your limits and give chance to them People who have problems with their function or lack of function at a certain rate about physical, mental, spiritual and social; people,who can not do their activities in society as it suppose to be, have rights benefit from economics, social and cultural activities like normal people. And this situation became one of the important principle for the countries which has the understandig of this social state. In order to provide this; state, all relevant associations both official and private, voluntary agencies, businessmen, trainer and experts should work together coordinated and support each other.

8 In countries which have the understandig of social state, the fundamental activities about gaining people with disability to society are: The integration and rehabilitation of people with disability to society, Education and training activities according to their skills and capabilities, Finding an appropriate job according to their skills.

9 Aimed activities in project are giving employment opportunity to people with disability and providing them more efficient work:




13 I want to produce with getting over my disabilities and prove myself to everyone. What I need is listen to me and give me a chance.

14 With employing people with disability, they will set a new social role in society. So they will behave more comfortable in society. THE REASONS OF WHY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITY SHOULD WORK

15 When people with disability have been hired, useless individual will become useful individual in society. When they participate active labour market, they will have stronger place both in family and in society. THE REASONS OF WHY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITY SHOULD WORK

16 They will have a better chance to express themselves when they join to work life. THE REASONS OF WHY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITY SHOULD WORK

17 People with disability should be employed in order to show they are an integral part of society and change the perspective of society to them.




21 JOB INTERVIEW While doing job interview with a person with disability, his or her psychological situation should be awared by employers. During the job interview, a true language should be used.

22 The speech should be adressed to people with disabilities. The Important Points at Job Interview

23 While doing a job interview with a person with disabilities, the interview could be done with a companion. This companion should be someone who knows that person with disability very well and gained his or her trust. So this person with disability feel himself safer and express himself better. The question should be asked directly to the person with disability. Companion should just do direction.

24 The questions should be short and clear. The Important Points at Job Interview

25 The information about the job should be explanatory. The Important Points at Job Interview

26 Appropriate ambiance should be provided for the person with disability so as to express himself more comfortable. The Important Points at Job Interview

27 During the interview, the acts to person with disability should be just like the acts to normal person. The Important Points at Job Interview

28 The questions should be asked about concrete experiences. For instance, what job did you do in cafeteria?.

29 Using metaphor should be avoided. For example, we work here like wind. This kind of sentences should not be used. The Important Points at Job Interview

30 The duration of job interview should be long for the person with disability so as to feel himself comfortable and express himself better. The Important Points at Job Interview

31 If it is noticed that he or she does not understand the questions, another ways should be used to reach he or she and take the answers to the questions. The Important Points at Job Interview

32 Giving oppotunities to people with disabilitiy in order to take a job is the responsibility of not only public but also employers. An employer who hires people with disability with a pleasure fulfills the social responsibilities. This also affects the society pozitively.


34 Employment application forms should be decipherable and understandable by people with disability. The questions should be short and clear. The letters in employment application form should be large font and decipherable.

35 The questions about the detaif of the disability may disturb that person with disability. With this reason, detailed information about the disability should be gotten by operator or in the first remove. This interview should not be done alongside with the person with disability. Another contact can be done.

36 Start to Work and First Training

37 I want to stand on my own legs and produce

38 Employers should analyse and follow the process of orientation of people with disability to work. The training about their jobs should be segmented and given easy as practical ways.

39 If employer has concerns about workers with disability, he/she should take consultancy and support. Employment support services cover the person with disabilitys process about start to work.

40 Explıcatıon To A Person Wıth Dısabılıty How The Job Should Be Done There are some ways that how you show to people with disability to do the job. These are: Their duty should be determined clearly. People with disability should be trained about the job that they are going to do. People with disability should be checked about the job that they have done. They should be trained about the issues that they are weak. The job that people with disability are going to do should be shown by an expert.

41 Another worker should check whether the person with disability understand the job or not. If it is necessary, the job should be shown again. I charge someone,who is experienced, to train the person with disability when the person with disability start to work. I provide the same personnel in every working period. That is actually a good method ( An employer). Evaluation and job training not only cover the duties of people with disability but help to be orientated about various topics.

42 Training material should be composed as the way that people with disability can understand. They should be supported during training process. Education, health and securty booklets should be simple, big letters, readable writing and used necessary images. Individuals who have trouble with reading and writing, should be trained constantly.

43 Arrangements for Workers with Disability in Working Place

44 Some arrangements should be done in working places in order to make sure that people with disability adapt the job and work more efficient.

45 Some arrangements may need to be done about working hour of people with disability. The arrangement of flexible working-hours scheme or part time scheme may be done for workers with disability.

46 Some arrangements should be applied according to needs of person with disability like computer software which can be activeted by sound or doing ramp in enterance of working place or reorganizing toilets for people with physical disability so on.

47 Office hours can be organized in an appropriate way so as to benefit from the services of hospital and rehabilitation.

48 Supports Which Needs to Be Done for People with Disability in Working Place

49 People with disability should be informed about the workers in the working place. They should be met one to one with other workers. The job that they are going to do should be represented by short and clear sentences.

50 The rules which need to be obeyed should be explained to workers with disability by their managers and friends in working place in time.

51 Some time should be given to workers with disability so as to obey the unwritten rules in working place.

52 There should not be impatient behaviours to learn the job. While the job has been taught to workers with disability, the person who teaches the job should let him/her to watch how the job is done. After that, these workers with disabilities should do practice at that job.

53 Brief information should be given to people about their working friends with disability in a meeting which that people with disabilities did not join. And people should have advance information about that people with disabilities. This information should not be so detailed because this information may cause some prejudiced attitudes to people with disability.

54 There are some services that should be given to normal workers about communication to people with disability and supporting them so as to be sure that they are adapted.

55 The job which is going to given to person with disability should be appropriate for that person. This job should be given considering his/her disability.

56 The job which is going to be done by person with disability should be explained and shown as practical way. Time should be given to workers with disability so as to accommodoate to the job that they do. The support should be provided by working friends and personnel in the process of accommodation to the job.

57 Somebody should be charged in order to help to person with disability. If there is problem about the job which has been done by person with disability, the job should be changed.


59 *** Managers and supervisers who have people with disability in their teams or departments should be trained. *** It should be determined that how managers can support people with disability. And all the information that they may need should be provided. *** If present workers accommodated with people with disability, they should also consider how a new employee can accommodate.

60 *** It should be noticed that a person with disabilitys way of doing that job can be an example to others for make it better. *** It should be known that when a person with disability has been informed about any topic, the information may need to be repeated more than one.

61 *** When deciding that appropriate consistency processes is going to be need, consistency processes which are going to help workers,who has learning disability, should be considered. *** Other workers should be informed about the consistency which is going to provide to a person with disability to do his/her job better.

62 *** While providing the activity of making team, it should be known that what people with disability may need in order to join to the team. Besides, workers in team should also be trained about what they should know to gain people with learning disability in the team. *** A supportive worker should be hired or support should be provided by a relevant association in order to build a team and good working relationship.

63 People with disability may have limited social interaction. They may concern about how they come back home after a dinner. If other workers know this kind of issues, these problems can be solved.

64 *** If attitudes and behaviours of some workers with disability are not appropriate, they may need to be warned several times. It shouldnt be thought that their inappropriate attitudes and behaviours are done by consciousness. If it is possible, you should get advice from some relevant associations. *** If other workers of a team think that the person with disability is not beneficial for not only himself but the team, all the members of team should get together and the problem should be discussed.

65 TRY TO GET OVER PROBLEMS ABOUT WORKING WITH PEOPLE DISABILITY *** When something needs to be done in another way by people with disability, it should be known that the request should be repeated more than one. *** Before put an official procedure into effect, it should be sured about what the person did the job wrongly.

66 *** If there is a difficulty, the reason of it should be tried to find out. If the reason is known, support should be taken or provided by association. *** It should be considered that what kind of arrangements may need to determine discipline procedures. *** Obvious attitude should be determined about despotism and annoyance.

67 *** Normal workers shoud know what should be done about despotism and annoyance because they are informed. *** Workers with disability who are indefensable to despotism and annoyance should know to who to say about it.

68 Hearing Disabled İ ntellectual Disability Learning Diffuculty Physically Disabled Visually Impaired



71 Disability; A disability is a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group. The term is used to refer to individual functioning, including physical impairment, sensory impairment, cognitive impairment, intellectual impairment mental illness, and various types of chronic disease. The UNHCHR defines the disabled person as:..any person unable to ensure by himself or herself, wholly or partly, the necessities of a normal individual and/or social life, as a result of deficiency, either congenital or not, in his or her physical or mental capabilities. What is a disability? Hearing Disableds

72 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders Blindness or Low Vision Blindness or Low Vision Brain Injuries Brain Injuries Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing Learning Disabilities Learning Disabilities Medical Disabilities Medical Disabilities Physical Disabilities Physical Disabilities Psychiatric Disabilities Psychiatric Disabilities Speech and Language Disabilities Speech and Language Disabilities TYPES OF DISABILITY Hearing Disableds

73 Discrimination; It is defined as every kind of segregation, exclusion and limitation which hinder a group of people using their basic rights and freedoms under equal conditions with other people because of their language, religion, sex and physical differences. Disabled people face direct and indirect discrimination in workplaces. Discrimination Against Disabled People Hearing Disableds

74 A hearing impairment or hearing loss is a full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds. People who are severely deaf rely a lot on lip-reading, even with a hearing aid. Profoundly deaf people can also use sign language to communicate. Hearing impaired persons with partial loss of hearing may find that the quality of their hearing varies from day to day, or from one situation to another or not at all. They may also, to a greater or lesser extent, depend on both hearing-aids and lip-reading. Hearing disability Hearing Disableds

75 Prejudice of employers and other employees against disabled people. Discrimination and social exclusion. Problems due to ill treatment like, orally or psychologically discriminative speech. Low wage due to disability. The communication is one of the main problems of hearing disabled people. Employers and other workers might not know sign language for hearing disabled people. They may night follow the working orders due to their disability. Unable to join adult education and vocational trainings. Unfair behaviors from employers towards hearing disabled people. Problems Of Workplaces For Hearing Disabled People Hearing Disableds

76 The work place or office should be well lit. Good lighting is essential, both natural and artificial, but avoid harsh lighting and glare. A person with a hearing loss needs to see the other persons face when having a conversation. The people remind to remove glass barriers, as they can muffle sounds. Employers and other employees should keep close when speaking. Wide counter-tops and desks should be avoided. The person with a hearing impairment should be given an office or working space with minimal background noise. Flashing lights should be fitted to audible smoke or evacuation alarms Flashlights to guide deaf and hearing impaired workers from the building if electrical power fails or smoke affects visibility should be used. Arrangements In Offıce For Hearing Disabled People Hearing Disableds

77 Hearing aid - to amplify all sounds. This may or may not be helpful, depending on the workplace. For example, if the workplace is noisy, the hearing aid would amplify the background noise as well as peoples voices. Pager - set to vibrate instead of ring. The person can then read the message. FM system - this portable receiver and headset amplifies sounds without the need for wiring. Volume control earpiece - this device is placed over the earpiece of a telephone to amplify the voice. Alarm clock - set to vibrate instead of ring. Equipments For Hearing Disabled People Hearing Disableds

78 Typed notes and the intended agenda should be supplied beforehand. An audio loop, or other assistive listening devices, SHOULD BE INSTALLED in meeting rooms. Presentations could include an audiovisual component with printed materials. Printed information or progressive notes can be projected onto a large screen with the use of a data-projector connected to a laptop computer. Videos should be subtitled. The speakers face should be well lit. Interpreter SHOULD BE HIRED. During Meetings Hearing Disableds

79 Creating empathy is essential to avoid any discriminative speech Be patient during your communication During your communication, if he had his back to you and you wanted to talk with him, touch him on the shoulder to get his attention; if the area was noisy, indicate with him to move somewhere quiet, and then talk face-to-face. Make eye contact with the person. Even if the person's disability precludes the ability to speak, see or hear, the simple gesture of making eye contact is powerful -- it proves that you are listening and that you are paying attention What Can You Do? Hearing Disableds

80 Help them when they face with barriers (glass barriers) avoiding hearing, in work place Make offers of help in the same context as an offer of help to any other worker. Understand that a disabled person has a legal right to equal access to Respect a disabled person's devices like hearing aid, alarm clock. What Can You Do? Hearing Disableds


82 Disability, any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. Intellectually Disableds

83 Direct discrimination; is where you are treated less favourably because of your disability than someone without a disability would be treated in the same circumstances. Discrimination Against Disabled People Intellectually Disableds

84 Indirect discrimination; is where there is a rule policy or practice which seems to apply equally to everyone, but which actually puts disabled people at an unfair disadvantage compared with people who aren't disabled. Intellectually Disableds

85 Autism is a developmental disorder, and although many people show improvements with age, the fundamental problems persist throughout life. The majority of adults remains heavily dependent on their families or require specialist accommodation and support, although some more able individuals do achieve social independence. Autism; Intellectual disability Intellectually Disableds

86 Autistic People In terms of employment, autistic adults usually are best suited to jobs that address their particular strengths. According to research, autistic adults generally have limited short-term memory, but excellent long-term memory compared to most people. In addition, there are support groups and services that help autistic adults take care of themselves. Intellectually Disableds

87 The ability of an autistic adult to manage a job, home, and taking care of financial obligations comes from education, training, and the severity of their disorder. There are autistic adults that have college degrees and are extremely innovative and there are others that require fairly simple jobs in order to succeed. Paying bills, cooking, and other independent behaviors can sometimes be taught. Other times, special services may be required to help independent autistic adults stay independent. Intellectually Disableds

88 How to communicate aspergers/autistic people Acknowledge that you will not understand how the person with autism/Aspergers thinks. It is very difficult to be able to relate to the way a person with Aspergers thinks, so if you can accept that you will not understand it, but instead work with it, you will be about fours steps ahead of the rest of the crowd. Intellectually Disableds

89 Trust the person with Aspergers/Autism. Short of some limitations that can often be most people with Aspergers are pretty familiar with what they can and can't do. When they know they can speak freely without being judged you will get a clear idea of how their skills can be used. People with Aspergers/Autism tend to be very direct, so deceit is not typical. Trust that what the person is telling you is valid and accurate. Intellectually Disableds

90 Listen. People with Aspergers may have problems explaining their point or concept, but if a person says "I have a possible solution for..." don't dismiss it right away because you don't understand the solution. Take the time to figure out their ide Intellectually Disableds

91 Determine the person's interests and parlay that into a role. If a person is fascinated with research, shape their role to involve that. If they like to analyze and problem- solve, permit the opportunity to contribute in that way. The more you enable to person with Aspergers to explore those areas which they find interesting, the greater the benefit to the company. Intellectually Disableds

92 Determine the person's interests and parlay that into a role. If a person is fascinated with research, shape their role to involve that. If they like to analyze and problem- solve, permit the opportunity to contribute in that way. Senses can be very developed in people with Aspergers/autism. A lot of loud noise can be very distracting to some, whereas a bright area can be almost painful to others. Intellectually Disableds

93 Working With LD Workmates Learning Diffuculty Disableds

94 A disability is a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group. The term is used to refer to individual functioning, including physical impairment, sensory impairment, cognitive impairment, intellectual impairment mental illness, and various types of chronic disease Disability Learning Diffuculty Disableds

95 Discrimination; It is defined as every kind of segregation, exclusion and limitation which hinder a group of people using their basic rights and freedoms under equal conditions with other people because of their language, religion, sex and physical differences. Disabled people face direct and indirect discrimination in workplaces. Discrimination Against LD People Learning Diffuculty Disableds

96 The term learning disability is used to describe the unexplained difficulties someone of average intelligence has in acquiring basic academic skills. These skills are essential for success at school and work, and for coping with life in general. Learning disabled people are most affected in Speaking/ Listening/ Reading /Writing/ Mathematics What is Learning Disability? Learning Diffuculty Disableds

97 Prejudice and ill treatment Inefficiency - working at a slow pace or having difficulties with organization High error rate - errors with reading, written correspondence Problems learning a sequence of tasks - problems with following instructions or completing projects with multiple steps Problems Occurred in Workplace Learning Diffuculty Disableds

98 Time management - trouble with planning, being on time or meeting deadlines Social skills - problems meeting new people, professional interactions and discussing the impact of LD on tasks to be completed Problems Learning Diffuculty Disableds

99 For people with difficulty following or remembering instructions or completing multi-step tasks, having written instructions on laminated cards; the employee can refer to often may improve work performance. For people with dyslexia, adjusting the background and font on the computer screen can make it easier to read. For those with a difficulty in expressive language or with central auditory processing disorder, receiving company communications in written form, via email or memo, before oral discussions may be helpful. Arrangements in Workplace Learning Diffuculty Disableds

100 For people with writing problems; Using a dictionary or thesaurus or electronic and talking dictionaries can be useful. Using word prediction and speech software such as Read & Write Gold; Using a human note-taker or proof-reader; Using forms with checkboxes and limited need for writing; Allowing verbal communication rather than written communication can be helpful Arrangements in Workplace Learning Diffuculty Disableds

101 The first rule for providing the required support to any disabled coworker or employee is to treat him/her just like any other normal individual. It is very important to speak to them in an ordinary tone, not stare at them, and socialize with them the same way you would with other employees. How Can You Help? Learning Diffuculty Disableds

102 Treating them equally will boost their confidence and help them succeed in their work. Working in a normal environment is already a challenge for them, thus making the workplace a comfortable one could prove to be helpful on your part. Being a guide and mentor to them and solving their problems, will help them trust you and not give them a feeling of loneliness. How Can You Help? Learning Diffuculty Disableds

103 Working with Physically Disabled Employees Physically Disableds

104 Disability, any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is the most advanced step under universal human rights law until now because it fulfills freedom within universal human rights and it removes discrimination. What Is Disabılity? Physically Disableds

105 Disabled; People who have difficulties in adopting communal life and meeting daily needs as a result of a congenital or acquired loss in physical, mental, sensual or social abilities at various degrees and who need protection, treatment, rehabilitation, consultancy and/or support services. Physically Disableds

106 Orthopedically disabled: People who have inadequacy, deficiency and loss of function in their musculoskeletal system. Shortness, deficiency, overgrowth, excalation, movement restriction, deformity, muscle weakness in arms, legs, feet, fingers and backbones; people who have bone diseases, paralytics, cerebral palsy, spastics and who have spina bifida are also included in this group. Physically Disableds

107 Problems related to physical conditions like inaccessibility of buildings, insecurity of work equipments, inadequacy in transportation to work place. Lack of necessary physical environment adjustments in the work place becomes a fact that affects the job performance of the disabled people negatively and becomes decisive in terms of carrying on the job. Problems due to ill treatment like, orally or psychologically discriminative speech to disabled people. Law wage due to disability. Sometimes equal wage for equal work can be violated within the workplace by employers. Barrıers In Workplaces Physically Disableds

108 Arrangements In Workplace Physically Disableds

109 Steps should be replaced with temporary or permanent ramps at the entrance of work place. Hand rails should be fit to help disabled people use small steps, e.g one or two steps. Doorways should be widened so that wheelchairs can pass through easily. Physically Disableds

110 Furniture or other obstacles should be designed to allow a clear passageway for people with a mobility or visual impairment. Light switches and door handles for someone who has difficulty in reaching should be relocated Wheelchair user's workstation can be transferred from an inaccessible upper floor to the ground floor Physically Disableds

111 A disabled job applicant should be allowed to be interviewed in an accessible room Specially modified equipment, such as a special keyboard adapted for someone who has arthritis, or a telephone adapted for someone with a hearing impairment, should be modified. Physically Disableds

112 Relax and smile to your workfellow Be open minded in your approach Do not refer to people as "disabled people" or "handicapped people." They are people first - much like you would say, "A person with brown hair," you can say, "A person with a disability." A disability does not, and should not, define a person. Remember that having a physical disability does not mean that a person has any other disabilities, such as neurological disorders. Speak to people with physical disabilities exactly like you would speak to anyone else How To Interact Wıth A Physically Disabled Employee Physically Disableds

113 Treat the person as you would any other worker - as a responsible adult completing employer-assigned tasks. Involve the disabled person in any effort to make the workplace more accessible. If your workfellow uses a wheelchair, remember most people using wheelchairs are not chronically ill. Understand the person regards the wheelchair in the same way you think about your car: it is simply a tool for mobility. How To Interact With A Physically Disabled Employee Physically Disableds

114 Understand that a disabled person has a legal right to equal access to employment. Look at the person when you talk, rather than at the wheelchair. Do not assume that people with physical disabilities can not do things. People with disabilities can be strong, independent and successful. Physically Disableds

115 Volunteer your assistance if the person seems to be having a difficult time. Don't be offended if your offer is declined. Get permission before you move a person's mobility aid, including wheelchairs, canes or crutches. Ask the person if they need assistance, then wait for their answer. Listen to the instructions they give or ask for the appropriate instructions. If you don't understand the directions, ask for clarification. Physically Disableds

116 How To Work With Visually Disabled People Visually Disableds

117 Disability; any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. What is Disability Visually Disableds

118 Direct discrimination Direct discrimination is where you are treated less favourably because of your disability than someone without a disability would be treated in the same circumstances. Discrimination against disabled people Visually Disableds

119 Indirect discrimination; is where there is a rule policy or practice which seems to apply equally to everyone, but which actually puts disabled people at an unfair disadvantage compared with people who aren't disabled. Discrimination Visually Disableds

120 People who have partial or total loss of vision or Impairment in one or both of their eyes. People who use eye prostheses with visual loss, colour blindness and night blindness (nyctalopia) are also included in this group. Visually Disabled Visually Disableds

121 An individual who is visually disabled has sight limitations that disrupt his ability to acquire information and interact with the environment to the point where special education and services may be required Visually Disabled Visually Disableds

122 Prejudice and social exclusion Discriminative approach of employers and other employees Physical conditions including access to work place, transportation to work. Main Problems in Workplaces Visually Disableds

123 Insufficient equipments for blind people. For instance, lack of personal computers that are designed for blind people. Inability use their professional knowledge and skills, for instance, a blind lawyer is forced to work as a call operator instead of working as a lawyer in the law department of the institution. Main Problems in Workplaces Visually Disableds

124 Necessary arrangements should be made for blind people to improve their working condition, it should be promoted to create a social environment instead of an isolated office in work place. It is important to support blind people with equipments designed for them. During meetings visual aids should be supported with verbal explanations or documents for blind people How to Assist Visually Disabled People in Workplace Visually Disableds

125 A blind employee should be allowed to bring his/her guide-dog into the premises and to take the dog outside occasionally during the day to relieve itself. Lifts that are operated by means of touch buttons, pose a problem to blind people, as they cannot count buttons without actually activating them. An employer can solve this problem by having braille numbers placed next to the buttons to help the blind employee locate the desired button. How to Assist Visually Disabled People In Workplace Visually Disableds

126 What can you do? Make the people who are visually impaired feel comfortable. Do not talk to the people like they are different, or constantly point out things referring to their disability. Speak directly to him in a manner that suggests you see him as your equal. How to Assist Visually İ mpaired People In Workplace Visually Disableds

127 Address the visually impaired individual by name, particularly when in a group so he is knows who you are talking to. Remember, he has difficulty seeing, so if you are speaking to him and others are present, he cannot communicate with you if you do not address him specifically Do not be hesitant to ask him if he needs help. Even if he is a proud person who does not like to ask for help, at times he may need it and will be glad you asked. If he refuses your help, respect his wishes. How to Assist Visually Impaired People In Workplace Visually Disableds

128 The Disabled Disabled People and Work Are You Looking for a Jop? Jop Education Project If you Already Have a Jop…

129 The disabled It is not correct to talk about disabled people in general, since there are many kinds of disability and different needs, taking into account not only the typology of the disease, but also different motivations, expectations and competences that disabled people express. Moreover, it is necessary to consider important context elements, related for instance to the Country situation, to the availability of services, to the receptiveness of the job market. Therefore, it is important to first understand the person and her needs, which go beyond the production field but have notable consequences on the possibilities of integration. The Disabled

130 DEFINITION OF DISABILITY THE FIRST DOCUMENT OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION : ICIDH International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH). This paper drew the important distinction between: Impairment "any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function; disability, "any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being" ; "handicap" "a disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from an impairment or a disability, that limits or prevents the fulfilment of a role that is normal (depending on age, sex, social and cultural factors) for that individual". The Disabled

131 For example, according to the above definitions, a blind person is a person with a visual impairment which gives him a disability of communication, of movement, and involves a handicap of mobility and an occupational disability, just to mention the most important aspects. Therefore, just one kind of impairment can cause multiple disabilities and imply several handicaps. The Disabled

132 International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). In this document there are no more references to a functional or structural disease, without first relating it to a state considered as 'healthy'. There are other terms used in a new perspective, such as: Body Functions (Mental Functions, Pain and sensory functions, Voice and speaking Functions, Functions of the cardio-vascular, ematologic, immunologic and respiratory systems, Functions of the digestive, metabolic and endocrinal systems, genitourinary and reproductive functions, Neuro-musculoskeletal functions related to movement, Functions of skin and associated structures). The Disabled

133 Body Structures: Structures of the nervous system; Eye, Ear and connected structures; Structures of voice and speech; Structures of cardiovascular, immune and respiratory systems; Structures of the digestive, metabolic and endocrinal systems; Structures of the genitourinary and reproductive systems; Structures connected to movements; Skin and associated structures. Activity and participation: Learning of knowledge and its application; Homework and requests of general character ;Communication; Mobility ;Care of oneself ;Domestic life ;Interactions and personal relationships; Main areas of life; Community, civic and social life, Environmental factors: Products and Technology; Natural environment and man-made changes; Support and relationships; Attitudes; Services, systems and policies. The Disabled

134 Bodily functions are the physiologic functions of the bodily systems, including the psychological functions. Bodily structures are anatomical parts of the body such as organs, limbs and their components. Activity is the execution of a task or an action by an individual. Participation is the involvement of the individual in a life situation. Environmental factors are characteristics of the physical and social world and attitudes that can have an impact on the performances of an individual in a specific context. The Disabled

135 The reversal of terms, speaking in positive terms (so in terms of functions, structures, activities and participation instead of obstacle, disability, handicap) is a very important step in this direction. Observing the key-words of the international classification, we must notice that the term disability, once used in the 1980 version, has been replaced by activity and that handicap has been replaced by the word participation: this indicates the positive changes that were implied. The Disabled

136 IF YOU ALREADY HAVE A JOB……… The following part is for you!

137 Questions Once the company threshold crossed, what does it happen to the disabled workers? Are they treated like the other ones as concerns the tasks given, training, participation, retribution and career paths? Are they really included into the company or rather left aside, isolated and abandoned? If You Already Have a Job………



140 MATTEOS STORY Matteo is a boy with psychiatric problems. Hes following a therapeutic program at an Italian center for mental rehabilitation. At a certain point during his path he was offered to do an experience of training and then inclusion into the labour market. This path, which started in 2000 with a training through a work bursary and then with a fixed-term contract, developed in a B- type-Cooperative, which is focused on the work inclusion of disadvantaged people. Matteo, who became a disadvantaged partner of this cooperative, has now a permanent contract and works as a helper for handicapped children and adult people. Hes satisfied with his job experience, which helps him a lot, in terms of self-esteem and self-confidence, to follow his therapeutic program. His success was possible thanks to the social network that was created around him in the company where he works and thanks to the constant monitoring and evaluation of his experience, in order to remove possible obstacles and overcome the difficulties. If You Already Have a Job………

141 ELENAS STORY Elena, who was entrusted to the Centre for Mental Health to treat her psychiatric problem, became a disadvantaged partner in a B-type-cooperative with a starting contract as a housekeeper. Later, because of her being resourceful and thanks to the supporting social network that the cooperative created around her, she succeeded in acquiring other skills and becoming a cook. The job helped Elena to gain back independence and dignity, after the negative experience of her wedding failure. Moreover, she overcame the hardest stage of her disease, since she won back self-esteem and self-confidence. If You Already Have a Job………


143 Vitos story Vito is a deaf-mute. He applied to participate to an announcement of a competitive exam promoted by ASL (Local Health Authority) which aimed at hiring housekeepers. He smartly passed the oral exam, so he was hired. He was called to work as housekeeper at the ASL general direction. He worked there for 6 months but suddenly something didnt work. Although he was totally able to carry out his duty, Vito started to feel that his enthusiasm was fading and from day to day he didnt feel anymore that going to work was stimulating. His colleagues hadnt a good relationship with him. He was often alone and some days he felt invisible. His colleagues involved him less and less in the job tasks. Staying there and waiting that time slowly passed, it became unbearable. Vito felt useless. He started to stay away from work and finally lost his job. This job loss had negative consequences on his health. Now he regrets having lost that wonderful opportunity. Maybe he could have done something too, instead of waiting for other people to act for him. If You Already Have a Job………

144 Annas story Anna has a physical disability. Shes on a wheelchair. Every morning, in order to reach her workplace at a private company, she makes a long path thanks to the help of her family and friends, who bring her to take the public transport, overcoming the architectural barriers. Anna is lately very tired and goes to her workplace feeling a bit unmotivated. It isnt a support for her to notice that at the workplace there are several barriers which dont allow her to carry out her duties autonomously and compel her to continuously ask for her colleagues support (to make copies, to get to papers or use toilets…). Anna is seriously thinking of leaving her job and requesting the retirement. Lets try to put ourselves in her shoes. What could she do? Which resources could she take advantage of but hasnt the boldness to take? If You Already Have a Job………

145 TO THINK THINGS OVER….. What do these stories excite in you? In the light of your experiences do you most recognize yourself in the successful or in the unsuccessful stories? Which element do you think leaded to the success of the positive stories? Which element do you think leaded to the failure of the negative stories? If You Already Have a Job………

146 There are still many prejudices about the possibility for disabled people to be integrated into work contexts. Although there are today several positive experiences in this direction, we still dont notice the availability of companies to hire. Lets consider together some of these prejudices. If You Already Have a Job………

147 Prejudices on disabled workers - A bigger risk for their and the other workers health and safety - A bigger probability to fall sick - More absenteeism - Less productivity -Work performances that dont come up to expectations -More burden and costs -…………… If You Already Have a Job………

148 IF WORK IS SEEN AS A POSSIBILITY TO: A void isolation and social exclusion Not to leave a human resource as unproductive Promote a culture of inclusion, that is the spread of shared values, opinions and knowledge in an organization, which aim at recognizing and enhancing the diversities Foster integration = a mutual adaptation between company and worker in order to promote the expression of the workers personal and professional potential. If You Already Have a Job………

149 IT TAKES : 1) A change of mentality and behavior towards disabled people by the whole community 2) A change of mentality and behavior by disabled people towards themselves. If You Already Have a Job………

150 Some key-words to promote this change (for disabled and non-disabled people) Skills. Abandoning the habit to label disabled people and to label ourselves as dependent people unable to work and be aware of the own skills and possibilities. Stopping to focus the attention on deficits. Disabled people are human beings with skills and possibilities. Differences. Disabled people are not a homogeneous group, they are all individuals and they have individual wishes and abilities. Social inclusion. Disabled people are members of the society. If You Already Have a Job………

151 Dignity. Abandoning the idea that disabled people have to be treated and let other people treat them with pity. They have right to respect and sympathy. Rights. Abandoning the idea of disabled as sick people. They have the same rights as any other citizen. Their right to self-determine needs to be fulfilled as much as possible. Duties. In addition to rights, disabled people have also responsibilities and duties appropriate to their roles and tasks. Independence. The aim of this process is the freedom to live and be according their own attitudes and wishes. If You Already Have a Job………


153 RIGHTS They are established by the related regulations within Italian legislation. In particular: Law nr. 67 of 1st March 2006 which sets the prohibition of any discriminations towards disabled people. Law nr. 104/92 which regulates assistance, social inclusion and rights of generally disabled people (at 360°); If You Already Have a Job………

154 Law 68/99 which promotes the work inclusion of disabled people; Law 196/97 and Ministerial Decree 142/98 which regulates trainings, counseling and vocational guidance.196/97Ministerial Decree 142/98 These laws have been described in a detailed way in the part called Disabled people and Work. If You Already Have a Job………

155 DUTIES It is possible to find: Duties concerning general skills required to the worker; Duties concerning specific skills required to the worker If You Already Have a Job………

156 DUTIES related to general skills These duties can be found in any work context and are independent from the specific workers task. Some examples: Respect of the scheduled time; Respect of the hygiene regulations; Respect of safety regulations; Respect of the privacy law…. If You Already Have a Job………

157 DUTIES related to specific skills All jobs have some specific skills, which are related to the task and function that the job foresees. Also concerning these skills, disabled people have the same duties as the other employees and in particular they must be efficient when fulfilling their task, which they have to be continuously trained and updated about. If You Already Have a Job………

158 In case your disability entails an objective limit for the fulfillment of your job tasks: Remember that Italian legislation sets the possibility to overcome the limits that disability implies: Law nr 68/99 (which allows employers to have incentives for the adaptation of the work place in order to promote the integration of disabled employees); Legislative Decree nr 626/94 (which foresees the architectural adaptation of the work context to the needs of disabled people). If You Already Have a Job………

159 Nevertheless, considering these incentives, disabled employees must: Be trained about their task; Continuously update about their task; Overcome the logic of assistance and passivity concerning their disability; Develop the skill of self-determining, also named EMPOWERMENT If You Already Have a Job………

160 EMPOWERMENT By this word is meant: The ability of the human being to be aware of his own strength as well as the ability to carry out the fundamental conditions which are necessary in order to take decisions about his life, relying on his own skills. The participation to the working process through the paid job represents the basis of Empowerment. Work is the key that allows to reach economic independence and social inclusion. If You Already Have a Job………


162 SOME USEFUL TIPPS TO KEEP YOUR JOB Communicate openly and keep good relationships with your colleagues Be available for a team working Be motivated and resolute Be flexible If You Already Have a Job………

163 Be reliable Respect your manager and colleagues Know well and be aware of your rights and duties Respect the company rules Ask for help in case of need ……………… If You Already Have a Job………

164 The available resources Remember that in the company where you work there are many resources you can use in order to reach integration and success during your job experience. Some of them are here to follow: If You Already Have a Job………

165 YOUR COLLEAGUES Your colleagues can be a resource to achieve the aim of inclusion into a work context. Consider that they often know the tasks to fulfill better than you – especially your older colleagues -. So approach to them showing your interest to learn your job, show your attention, motivation, respect and be careful not to seem competitive. If You Already Have a Job………

166 Feed the relationship with them also during the breaks (e.g. a coffee break); Dont be afraid of asking for help, support and suggestions; Be available to do tasks that can make the development of the work easier; Be ready to immediately clear up possible misunderstandings showing the wish to build something and not to destroy; A positive atmosphere in the work context allows you to carry out your tasks easier. If You Already Have a Job………

167 AN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION We always communicate with other people; but are we really able to do it effectively? Communication is effective if it achieves its aim, that is to say if our interlocutor understands well what we want to communicate. Sometimes we get angry and feel sorry because we think that our interlocutors dont understand our opinion, needs and problems.

168 Lets take into account that our interlocutors may misunderstand us because we arent able to express our need or our opinion completely…. Therefore, it is important to leave your pride aside. Every communicative message has two levels: Content Form If You Already Have a Job………

169 The content It is what we want to say, to communicate, to express to other people: the aim of communication. If You Already Have a Job………

170 The form It is the way we express our content, like a sort of dress we want it to wear. It is very important, since it is the first aspect that strikes our interlocutors. It is made of the words we choose, the tone we use and the gestures that go with our speech, as well as our facial expressions while speaking. If You Already Have a Job………

171 When communicating with someone, make sure that your communication has been effective, so that your message was understood by your interlocutor in the right way. You can test it through the feedback, that is the answer you receive by your interlocutor. This answer is made of words but also of gestures, actions, voice tone too… If You Already Have a Job………

172 Learn to analyze the feedback and if you feel that it doesnt correspond to the answer you expected to receive, try to express your need once more, changing the way you express it. Our interlocutors are in good faith more often that we think. If You Already Have a Job………

173 UPDATING The updating represents a vital occasion to improve both your general and specific skills when carrying out your task. We all approach to a work context after having developed basic knowledge through our background or our previous job experiences. Nevertheless, it is important to always update your knowledge while carrying out your tasks. If You Already Have a Job………

174 As a matter of fact, if you are updated and trained during your job experience, you can: Constantly monitor your work performance and correct it in case, in order to improve it; Increase both your general as well as your specific competences; Confront each other with your colleagues about the way to carry out your tasks. If You Already Have a Job………

175 THE ROLE OF THE TUTOR Law nr 68/99 gives disabled employees also the opportunity to count on a tutor. The tutor is another worker, a skilled worker who was chosen by the company to make the disabled peoples inclusion in the work context easier as concerns many aspects: for carrying out the different tasks, as well as developing relations. If You Already Have a Job………

176 It means that……. You can address to your tutor to: Perfect both your general and specific skills while carrying out your tasks (in other words, the tutor is a sort of teacher for you in the job context); Overcome possible difficulties related to your tasks or to the relations within your work context; Confront each other with your colleagues about possible doubts related to the fulfillment of your tasks; If You Already Have a Job………

177 The awareness of your rights and duties We can consider that as a further resource, since being aware of his own rights and duties helps you to be aware and protagonist in the process of work inclusion. Being protagonist and more aware are a certainty of success in the experience you are doing. If You Already Have a Job………

178 Are you looking for a job?

179 THE CURRICULUM VITAE In this part of the text we want to help you writing a curriculum able to express your job experiences and to underline your abilities as well as the experience you gained. Are You Looking for a Job?

180 WHY TO WRITE A CURRICULUM The curriculum is the first contact the employers have with you. Therefore, it is a crucial element to get a job. The curriculum should be well presented and contain enough information to attract the employers interest. Are You Looking for a Job?

181 HOW TO WRITE A CURRICULUM A curriculum has to be: CLEAR: pay attention to the layout; use white A4 paper format; write it using the computer. PRECISE: show chronologically the different job and training periods. EASILY READABLE: write it in a concise way putting just the most important information on it. Are You Looking for a Job?

182 WHAT YOU HAVE TO WRITE IN YOUR CURRICULUM Your personal data: (name and surname, place and date of birth, address, phone number, registration at the employment agency). Your background: Education (indicate education level and qualification). Training (specify the qualifications and the skills you gained). Your linguistic knowledge: the languages you know (indicate your level: e.g. school level, mother tongue, etc.) Are You Looking for a Job?

183 Your computer knowledge: the computer programs you know (e.g. Word, Excel, etc) Your job experience: the companies you worked for and your roles and duties in them. Your spare time activities: write what are your interests in the cultural, sport field or other ones. Are You Looking for a Job?

184 FAC SIMILE CURRICULUM VITAE Are You Looking for a Job?

185 FAC SIMILE CURRICULUM VITAE Are You Looking for a Job?

186 THE COVER LETTER The cover letter is so named because it often predates the curriculum and has a crucial role, since it represents the first contact you have with the selector and/or with the company. Try to avoid writing information you have already put in the curriculum; give additional information instead, which can draw the interest of the person you are talking to. You dont have to write the same cover letter for all your addressees: personalize it underlining the reasons why you chose that company. Are You Looking for a Job?

187 FAC SIMILE of a COVER LETTER SENDER (SENDER:) Mario ROSSI Via Roma, 88 20100 – MILANO Phone nbr. 02/56789 Date and place (ADDRESSEE:) Mr Franco BIANCHI Director of production Officine PINCO Via Larga, 24 20100 - MILANO Dear Mr Bianchi, ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Yours sincerely, Signature Are You Looking for a Job?

188 THE JOB INTERVIEW THE JOB INTERVIEW The job interview is the crucial step of the personnel selection in which you have the opportunity to show and enhance your competences as well as to give the impression of being a good candidate to hold the position you apply for. Therefore, it is a step you have to prepare well. You should better bring your curriculum at the interview. Are You Looking for a Job?

189 HOW TO GET READY FOR A JOB INTERVIEW Don't be overcome by the questions the selector asks you. Ask appropriate questions which show your interest and curiosity. Starting from your curriculum, the selector could ask you questions to better know your professional background. As concerns clothing just be yourself, trying to be in this occasion more formal than usually. Are You Looking for a Job?

190 WHERE AND HOW TO LOOK FOR A JOB Are You Looking for a Job?

191 Looking for a job There are basically two specific steps while looking for a job: TO FIND the kind of job you prefer and TO OFFER yourself to a possible employer. You can find out the available jobs through: advertisements on daily, weekly newspapers and national as well as local magazines; private and public employment agencies; friends and relatives; passing the word; sending the curriculum to the employers; syndicates, internet……. Despite the high percentage of unemployment, there are many job advertisements. Are You Looking for a Job?

192 One of the main match points between our demand and the multiple job supplies is represented by Employment AgenciesTarget-oriented Employment Are You Looking for a Job?

193 EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES The employment agencies are the local (provincial) structures of the Job Agency which are a point of reference for workers and companies willing to use the services supplied. These services are dedicated above all to unemployed people, but they can be used also by workers who would like to find another job. The person who is looking for a job has to go to the employment agency of her place of residence. Remember that you need to be at least 16 years old to be an employee and so to be registered at the agency. Are You Looking for a Job?

194 THE SERVICES SUPPLIED BY EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES ADMINISTRATION ACTIVITIES The agencies deal with the following functions: Managing the employees personal data, which contain the professional history of all people living in the area of competence of the Employment Agency (including the periods of unemployment); Managing the certification of the unemployment status; Registration to the lists of mobility and pre-mobility; Are You Looking for a Job?

195 Registration to the lists of legally protected categories under the law 68/1999; Gathering of the spontaneous applications to be inserted into public institutions with low qualifications and arrangement of the related lists; Registration to the lists of employees of socially useful works and arrangements of the connected rankings; Registration of hiring, changes and stoppages of working relationships in private companies and public institutions. Are You Looking for a Job?

196 INFORMATION ABOUT EMPLOYMENT Information and papers are offered about: Interventions of work politics made by the Employment Agency: categories of employees concerned and services supplied; Trainings in order to gain, increase and adapt your expertise to the needs of the job market: indications about schools, universities, trainings at different levels, scholarships, masters; Jobs and activity fields, as well as their inclinations for the future, especially in relation to the local job market; Public competitions: the opportunity for the users to participate to provincial competitive examinations; Are You Looking for a Job?

197 Job advertisements in the local press; Useful addresses for the job research: addresses of companies, cooperative societies, websites, etc.; Job regulations: contracts, apprenticeship, part-time job, employment, mobility, social laws in general; National and local benefits for employers who hire unemployed people belonging to legally protected categories or under specific kind of contracts. Are You Looking for a Job?

198 SERVICE TO PROMOTE THE MEETING BETWEEN JOB DEMAND AND SUPPLY According the law in force, employers can choose in total autonomy and directly hire employees; therefore, in order to foster the circulation of correct information about people offering and demanding a job, at every Local Employment Agency there is a database concerning people searching for a job – unemployed or even employed but looking for a new job. In order to have access to such a service, employees have to make an interview with the operators. According the specific request of the company a search is made in this database and the curricula of employees who satisfy the requirements are given to the company selectors. Are You Looking for a Job?

199 Moreover, at the Employment Agencies there is the collection and the diffusion of information about the different local job opportunities, both through appropriate information areas and through websites. Are You Looking for a Job?

200 VOCATIONAL COUNSELING A guidance for the job research is offered through vocational counseling interviews. These services aim at helping employees to use easily and with command the typical tools of a job research, giving for instance indications about how to reply to job advertisements, to write a curriculum or to make a job interview. Are You Looking for a Job?

201 JOB INTEGRATION OF DISABLED PEOPLE AND EMPLOYEES BELONGING TO FURTHER LEGALLY PROTECTED CATEGORIES UNDER THE LAW 68/1999 The aim is to foster the job integration of people registered to the list of disabled employees under the law 68/1999. The interventions which have been proposed are: support oriented to the meeting between job supply and demand, professional training, vocational training, oriented integration, stipulation of agreements with companies and/or social cooperatives, information and promotion, counseling for experiences of integration into job contexts. Are You Looking for a Job?

202 SOCIALLY USEFUL OCCUPATIONS Some initiatives are foreseen for socially useful occupations which are meant for disadvantaged categories or weak workers ranges. The employees who are interested in it can inquire and apply to the different opportunities at their local Employment Agency. Are You Looking for a Job?

203 VOCATIONAL TRAININGS Trainings are initiatives aimed at proposing a temporary presence of the employee in the company, in order to carry out practical training moments or to favor the professional choices through a direct knowledge of the job context. Are You Looking for a Job?

204 PROMOTION OF TRAININGS It is possible at the local Employment Centers to know the training opportunities the Employment Agency can activate for specific employee categories and register to the foreseen courses. Such opportunities are found out through the local (provincial) interventions of work politics. Are You Looking for a Job?

205 TARGET-ORIENTED EMPLOYMENT With this expression it is meant a specific method for introduction of disabled people to the job context. Starting from the evaluation of their remaining skills, this method plans a personalized path and organizes all the tools which are necessary to acquire the professional competences (including their support forces) which enable them to gain a job integration able to satisfy their professional skills as well as the production needs. The goal is to create LISTS on which the employers can draw to hire disabled employees in the percentages foreseen by law. Are You Looking for a Job?

206 WHO CAN REGISTER? The people who can register to these specific employment lists are: People affected by physical, mental, sensory and intellective disability who are registered disabled civilians for more than 45%. Blind people. Deaf-mutes. Industrially disabled people with a more than 33% disability. Registered disabled ex-servicemen, war-disabled civilians, people with work-connected disabilities. Are You Looking for a Job?

207 HOW TO REGISTER? Employees have to go to the Local Employment Center, to fill in the appropriate form and keep a copy of the following papers: Certification of disability. Functional diagnosis. Identification papers. Are You Looking for a Job?

208 USEFUL LINKS Are You Looking for a Job?

209 Before beginning to look for a job and even sending thousands of applications, try to think a bit about yourself. Which one of the different job opportunities would you like to apply for? Which jobs do you think are able to enhance your skills, interests and previous experiences? Are You Looking for a Job?

210 FIND OUT YOUR INTERESTS! I like ….I can … Use this table to describe what you like to do, what you can do and what are your interests. Are You Looking for a Job?

211 It is important for you to start from what you can do and what you like to do, since it has to be hoped that there is also something pleasant in everybodys job. Think of a hobby you have cultivated all along and how you could turn it into a job. Think of a skill for which everybody give you recognition since you were a child and consider it could be the right cue to realize which job it is better to be oriented to. Are You Looking for a Job?

212 As a matter of fact, every job implies general skills (e.g. respect of working hours, rules of the job context, health and work safety rules, or even respect of the privacy laws….), but it also implies to show many specific skills, which have a close relationship to the employees duties. These skills are certainly the result of the specific experience we gained throughout the years, but also of our attitudes and abilities which are related to what we actually like. THINK ABOUT YOUR SKILLS……. Are You Looking for a Job?

213 Manual and practical skills (you can paint or fix objects or you garden or you like working the land or you can cook….) Social skills (you like to be in contact with people, to listen to their needs, to help them solving little problems….) Are You Looking for a Job?

214 Manual and practical skills (you can paint or fix objects or you garden or you like working the land or you can cook….) Social skills (you like to be in contact with people, to listen to their needs, to help them solving little problems….) Are You Looking for a Job?

215 Mental skills (you can use the computer or you have inclination to clerical work, e.g. you are able to file information in a systematic way….) IN THE LIGHT OF YOUR SKILLS……. Are You Looking for a Job?

216 In which field would you like to work? Food Agriculture Administration Hotel Art Social (childrens or adult peoples care) Education IT Sales Handicraft Hospital – Health Press/Communications Entertainment Anything else………………….. Are You Looking for a Job?


218 Try to fill in the following table in the light of your education and job training QualificationProfessional training Kind of job Are You Looking for a Job?

219 It would be better if you had already gained experience in the job field you would like to apply for. If you hadnt, what are you waiting for? Look for a training on the job! A training experience in a job context can help you thinking things through about work, the required skills, the skills you already have and the ones you need to improve. (Take into account the experience of the trainings organized by Cooperative Anthropos ) Are You Looking for a Job?


221 Work Opportunities. WORK In the Italian Constitution is written : The Italian Republic is based on work; it is a duty of the Republic to remove the obstacles that prevent the equal rights of the citizens The Italian Republic is based on work; it is a duty of the Republic to remove the obstacles that prevent the equal rights of the citizens Disabled People and Work


223 FOR DISABLED PEOPLE WORK IS: A RIGHT (Law 104/92 ; Law 68/99) A VALUE: it allows them to test their own skills; its main aim is to pursue the well-being of both people working and using work; AN OPPORTUNITY OF REHABILITATION, SOCIAL INTEGRATION, GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT; A WAY TO PREVENT BECOMING A SUBJECT OF ASSISTANCE Disabled People and Work


225 The situation in Europe is a little better, but many things still have to be done. If you think that one European family out of 4 has a disabled person and 62% of disabled people have one of the lowest incomes in Europe, this matter becomes very urgent from both the social and economic point of view. Thats why the European Disability Forum explained that Europe needs also disabled people to develop. Disabled People and Work

226 Anyway, we are still far from an actual equality: if 18% of all European citizens attend University, disabled people show only 9% of attendance, that is the perfect half. Moreover, we can say that 69% of the European citizens have a job, but this rate decreases markedly when facing handicapped people, who stay at just 29%. Disabled People and Work

227 STATISTICS In Italy Data collected by CENSIS (Italian Centre for social investment studies): Italy is represented by 60.400.000 citizens, the number of disabled people is 4.100.000 and 2.600.000 of them have the age to work. Disabled People and Work

228 Data collected by ISTAT (Central Statistics Institute): These data take into account only disabled people who benefit from a permanent health care, so they are different from the above-mentioned data, since they number about 3.000.000 disabled people; 34% of them, belonging to an age group from 25 to 44, live with their parents and 17% of them live with just one of their parents. Disabled People and Work

229 Work in numbers…. Despite legislative innovations in the field of work integration (Law 68/99) and the multiple initiatives activated also thanks to European projects and funding, the present day we can observe in Italy still low levels of occupation for disabled people. Disabled People and Work

230 As a matter of fact, the occupation rate concerning disabled people is 21%, less than the half of the one that has been registered among non-disabled people. Anyway, we have to consider that almost 27% of disabled people having the age to work are totally unfit for work. Disabled People and Work

231 Disabled women are considerably at a disadvantage compared to men: they have an 11% occupation rate, while the rate for men is 29%; this disadvantage exists also among non disabled people, although there are no really relevant differences between men and women. Disabled People and Work

232 Compulsory employment Till December 31 of year 2007, 768.394 people were registered to the compulsory employment and 48% of them were women. In the same year, 30.017 introductions to work were registered. (Isfol-Department of Employment and Welfare, 2009). Disabled People and Work

233 THE LAWS It is important for you to know that there are laws which protect and foster the opportunities to work for disabled people. What follows is a list of the most important laws in this field, as concerns Italian regulations. Disabled People and Work

234 Italian legislation about the employment of disabled people Integration into working life and economic independence are very important for the social inclusion of disabled people. Disabled People and Work

235 Law nr. 68/99 "Rules for the disabled peoples right to work To promote inclusion and integration of disabled people into working life through services of support and specific placement. To mention indeed a series of technical tools and supports which allow to appraise disabled people in their work abilities through inserting them at the proper place. It is possible to solve problems connected to work environment analysing the work places and using different forms of technical support. Disabled People and Work

236 What this law has to do with……… to establish an agreement between public or private employer and disabled worker, through a plan of insertion according to the demands of both; there is a personalized project which carefully considers abilities and disabilities; the employee is followed by a tutor through different checks and supervisions; The convention is stipulated through the individualization of disabled people to be inserted, who are chosen from a unique list. Disabled People and Work

237 What this law has to do with……… Employers have to respect the safety norms. The law allows to reduce contributions for employers who hire disabled people. it embitters the sanctions for employers who dont respect law. it is foreseen a borrowing requirement for public or private companies that have more than 15 employees. there is a specific obligation not to dismiss people suffering from job injuries and to place them in other offices. Disabled People and Work

238 What this law has to do with……… Employers who hire disabled people can benefit from relevant economic facilities, like the exemption from social security taxes as concerns disabled employees, 100% eight years long for employees with a more than 79% disability and for physical and mental disabled people, 50% five years long for disabled people with a disability between 67% and 79%. it is foreseen a partial lump-sum repayment of the costs that the corporate incurred to make the workplace suitable for people with an incapacity for work which is more than 50%. Disabled People and Work

239 Institutional competences about integration of disabled people into work life are to the provincial Commission for work politics and to the Employment Services. At the competent offices there is a list of unemployed disabled people with their qualifications, competences and job experiences, as well as the description of type and seriousness of their handicap and which kind of job is suitable for each of them. Disabled People and Work

240 BENEFITS FOR THE HIRING OF DISABLED WORKERS ECONOMIC BENEFITS It is foreseen a total or partial refund for the adaptation of the workplace or for the removal of the architectonic barriers in the workplace and to arrange positions of teleworking, in other words a refund for the costs that are necessary for the conversion of the workplace in order to make it suitable for the operational abilities of disabled people. Disabled People and Work

241 CONTRIBUTORY BENEFITS It is foreseen a total exemption, for a period of maximum eight years, from social security taxes and contributions for every disabled worker who has a more than 79% decrease of work capacity; the same exemption is allowed for seriously disabled by industrial accidents, disabled servicemen and to workers with a mental and intellectual handicap, independently from the percentages of disability. Disabled People and Work

242 It is foreseen an exemption, for a period of maximum five years, from 50% of social contributions for every disabled worker who has a decrease of work capacity between 67% and 79%. These benefits are financed by the National Fund for the disabled peoples Right to Work, whose resources are yearly divided among the Regions. Disabled People and Work

243 SOCIAL BENEFITS: We have to first consider that disabled are people able to take responsibilities, decisions about daily life, work and professional directions. We are talking about a change from the idea of integration to the one of inclusion in the daily life, also through the professional inclusion of the disabled; for instance, lets think about the implications that a job can have on the improvement of quality of life and on disability: they can achieve abilities of communication, relation and stress managing. In this way it is possible to reduce the costs related to the specialized support (medical, therapeutic, social) that disability requires. Disabled People and Work

244 PRODUCTION AND IMAGE BENEFITS Disability is also a resource if we all overcome the prejudices related to a vision of unproductive cost: the increase of productivity from the quantity and quality point of view is strictly related to the disabled personnels motivation. In order to awaken companies and encourage them to hire disabled people, the intervention sets the aim also to activate processes able to grant a profit in terms of image for companies hiring disabled people; in this way, it tries to promote a change of mentality in the companies themselves, so that they can consider the integration of disabled people as an opportunity rather than an obstacle. Disabled People and Work

245 LAWS AGAINST THE DISCRIMINATION OF DISABLED WORKERS LAWS AGAINST THE DISCRIMINATION OF DISABLED WORKERS The UN Agreement on the rights of disabled people frequently reminds the notion of discrimination. Article 27, in particular, sets the prohibition to «discriminate because of someones disability about all matters related to any form of occupation, including the conditions of selection, hiring and employment, keeping of the job, career advancement as well as the safe and healthy work conditions». Disabled People and Work

246 Legislative Decree nr 216 of 9th July 2003 establishes to execute the Guideline 2000/78/CE concerning the equal treatment in the field of occupation and work conditions. It reminds the concept of direct or indirect discrimination because of religion, disabilities, age and sexual preferences. ART. 2 DIRECT DISCRIMINATION : it happens when a person is treated differently than in similar situations because of her religion, handicap or sexual preference INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION : it happens in case a procedure, a behavior or a criterion put people who have disabilities or profess a different religion at a disadvantage compared to other people. Disabled People and Work

247 Legislative Decree 216/2003 ART. 3 FORESEES: the access to occupation and work, both salaried and freelance, including the selection criteria and the hiring conditions; occupation and work conditions, including career advancement, retribution and dismissal conditions; the access to any kinds and levels of vocational training, job specialization and retraining courses, including professional traineeships; affiliation and activity made within organizations of employees, employers or professional organizations, as well as the services they supply; Disabled People and Work

248 FURTHER LAWS LAW OF 1st MARCH 2006 Nr.67 MEASURES FOR THE JUDICIAL PROTECTION OF DISABLED PEOPLE VICTIMS OF DISCRIMINATION Any worker –disabled or not–thinking to be victim of a discrimination can turn to the Bench for support, with the help of a lawyer skilled in labour law, in order to obtain a measure able to stop the unlawful conduct. Disabled People and Work

249 In case the judge states that the legal action is valid, he will grant the compensation– if clamed – both financial and not; moreover, he will «order to suspend the discriminatory behavior, conduct or action, in case they still remain, as well as remove its consequences» and, once he has checked discriminations have been made, he can states to take a measure aimed at removing discriminations. In addition, he can establish to once issue the judgment on a national daily newspaper (Legislative Decree 216/2003, article 4, paragraph 5 and 7) – charging it to he respondent. Trade unions, associations and organizations for the injured rights or interests are legally empowered to take actions, on behalf of the victims of discriminations, against the natural person or the body corporate who is responsible for the discriminatory action or conduct. Disabled People and Work

250 THE LABOUR MARKET Disabled people looking for a job have to register at the Employment Agencies, which base on just one list taking into account peoples attitudes and skills through the important tool of the target-aimed employment. Disabled People and Work

251 EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES They are located in the different provinces and within the same Province there can be more Employment Agencies. They supply all services related to employment. Their duties are: Planning, carrying out, checking actions to grant the work integration of disabled people Introducing to work Organizations of the lists Giving permissions and exemptions Drawing up agreements Carrying out the target-aimed employment Disabled People and Work

252 A NOTE: The old law 113/85, which compelled all disabled people to register at the Employment Centers in order to get the invalidity allowance, has been abolished. The new law 247/2007 has allowed to cut the list, which has at the moment only people really willing to work. It is important to bring up that also a person with a full disability can register at these lists, if the Medical Committee stated that she has residual abilities in some activities. Disabled People and Work

253 Law 68/99 compels all companies with at least 15 employees (see the board below), to hire disabled people. Moreover, in 2009 the Chart for Equal Opportunities and Equality in the Work field was drawn up. The Departments of Equal Opportunities and Work took as a reference model the UN Agreement about the rights of disabled people. Disabled People and Work

254 BOARD OF THE LAW 68/99 Number of employees Disabled people to be hired Between 15 and 35 1 Between 35 and 50 2 More than 50 7% of the employees Disabled People and Work

255 The possible employers are: Institutions (Ministry, Regions, Provinces, Municipalities) Public and private companies Social, Health, Education and Training Services Social Cooperatives B-type-Cooperatives Schools Associations Media Disabled People and Work

256 SOCIAL COOPERATIVES Law of 8th November 1991 nr 381 ART.1 The social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to human promotion and social integration of the citizens through: The management of socio-sanitary and educational services The setting up of various activities – related to agriculture, industry, trade or services- aiming at the work integration of underprivileged people Disabled People and Work

257 UNDERPRIVILEDGED PEOPLE physically, mentally and sensory disabled people, people who undergo a psychiatric treatment, drug addicts, alcoholics, minors in working age with family trouble, people under alternative measures of detention. Underprivileged people must be partners of the cooperative and be at least 30% of its workforce. The status of disadvantaged people must be certified by Public Bodies Disabled People and Work

258 WORK INSERTION OF DISABLED PEOPLE POSSIBLE PROCESS IN ITS FULL DEVELOPMENT If DISABLED PEOPLE think they fulfill the requirements which are necessary to be certified, they go to: A.S.L. (Local Health Authority) Legal Medicine Service to take the forms required to open the file and then they go to the GENERAL PRACTITIONE R who draws up the diagnosis With this paper they go to the A.S.L. Legal Medicine Service which, through the Committee on Disability, verifies the diagnosis and issues a CERTIFICATE OF CIVIL INVALIDITY (diagnosis and Invalidity percentage) Disabled People and Work

259 With the papers given by ASL (final report) disabled people go to the local EMPLOYMENT CENTER to: REGISTER AT THE ORDINARY EMPLOYMENT The required papers are: - The document recording the worker's personal details and any previous employment - ID card This registration allows them to be included to the employment list The concerned people can register at two kinds of list: 1) List for the ordinary employment 2) List to be selected in the Public Bodies (this registration requires the parameters necessary for the access to the public employment: - being 18 years old - Qualification of compulsory school attendance. The registered person receives a score. The list is updated once in the year. REGISTER AT THE COMPULSORY EMPLOYMENT In order to access to it, disabled people have to first register at the ordinary employment. They can register at the same time. The required papers are : - Certificate of civil invalidity (at 46% or higher) or - Certificate of industrial disability (at 33% or higher) - The document recording the worker's personal details and any previous employment - Certificate of unemployment The concerned people have to make a declaration of their availability about possible employment proposals Disabled People and Work

260 PRIVATE COMPANIES - The seniority starts from the day of the registration at the compulsory employment PUBLIC COMPANIES Requirements: - Qualification of compulsory school attendance - Minimum age: 18 About the registered people: - The seniority starts from the day of the registration at the compulsory employment; - They are included into the list the year after the registration. Afterwards THE JOB CENTER invites the person to an INTERVIEW FOR INFORMATION AND COUNSELING The Compulsory Employment foresees two kinds of list: PRIVATE COMPANIES PUBLIC COMPANIES Each list has a different selection criterion Disabled People and Work

261 THE OPPORTUNITIES In order to improve and promote the job conditions of disabled people it was necessary to take measures about the environmental aspects, taking as reference ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health). Moreover, employers can benefit from incentives to buy technologies which allow disabled people to access to IT services. The overcoming of the Digital Architectural Barriers is possible thanks to electronic tools such as Braille, screen readers and magnifiers, speech synthesizers. Disabled People and Work

262 THE ADAPTATION OF THE WORKPLACE Law nr 68 foresees benefits for the adaptation of the workplace of disabled people with a reduction of the working ability higher than 50%. The legislative decree 626/94 compels to adapt doors, traffic ways, stairs, shower units, toilets as well as the work places which are used and occupied by handicapped employees. Disabled People and Work

263 TYPES OF MEASURES ADAPTATION OF THE WORKPLACE Actions of renovation, purchase of ergonomic equipments; OVERCOMING OF THE ARCHITECTURAL BARRIERS Adaptation of machines and equipments for work and training, as well as adaptation of public transport; START-UP OF TELEWORKING TECHNOLOGIES Purchase of hardware/software/networks; START-UP OF TECHNOLOGIES WHICH EASE THE ACCESS TO IT SERVICES There are technical solutions that allow to overcome or reduce the disadvantages. They help disabled people to carry out their daily activities easier. Disabled People and Work

264 TECHNOLOGY AIDS (some examples) - audio amplifiers for people who enunciate well the sound but cant speak loud; - informatics tool with an optical control thanks to which people with serious motor impairments can access to several applications through their look; - vocal communicators, equipments which allow people to communicate through an emission of registered voice or vocal synthesis; - braille display; - braille keyboard; Disabled People and Work

265 Braille printer; - telephones adapted to particular needs; - mouse emulators which allow to move the mouse pointer with a slight thumb pressure or using the mouth; - magnifying glasses and video-enlargers to make the reading easier for partially sighted people; Reading system which allows to get paper documents and turn them into vocal ones; - tools which allow to turn pages pushing only one button. Disabled People and Work

266 JOB EDUCATION PROJECT REHABILITATION PROGRAM FOR PSYCHIATRIC USERS EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAININGS The education and vocational training represents a period of guided education in a job context, which aims at professional choices (for people who have just taken a diploma or a degree), as well as support and job integration (for unemployed adult people). It is an apprenticeship and not a paid employment relationship. (law 196 dating 24 th June 1997) Jop Education Project

267 The training provides for the involvement of three people: a promoting body, a host enterprise and the trainee; It is carried out through an agreement between the promoting body and the host subject (private or public employer), which makes also a training project; The promoting subject must grant the trainee an insurance against work injuries, which has to be underwritten at INAIL (National Insurance Institute accidents); For the civil liability towards a third part, it is necessary to underwrite an insurance with an appropriate insurance company including also activities he had made in case, maybe outside the enterprise but anyway being part of the education project; Jop Education Project

268 Promoting body:Anthropos Cooperative Society; Project partners: HEIS Alberovivo Cooperative Association (B-type-Cooperative for the employment of disabled people) ; Centres for Mental Health belonging to the Local Health Body of the district of Bari (ASL/BA); SME of the territory Area: Municipalities in the District of Bari and their belonging Local Health Bodies (ASL); Period:6 months (liable to a 12 months extension); Direct users: people with mental illness OUR PROJECT Jop Education Project

269 Work ennobles man and it really happened to a pilot group among our users who have been introduced in guided activities in our Cooperative Society. Having engagements and targets all the day long, doing actions for the carrying out of a more complete puzzle develops in people a self-image made of abilities, skills, showing competences and skills. In this way people can discover themselves as protagonists and makers of services and no longer as passive users. Jop Education Project

270 AIMS Increase chances of finding work for people with mental illness Start up and support the development of local and institutional networks for the social and work reintegration of the beneficiaries of this project Promote the definition of work policies through starting up joint actions of active work policies, income support policies and local development policies. Jop Education Project

271 SPECIFIC TARGETS To strengthen and set off the personal abilities showed during the rehabilitation program; to promote self- esteem, independence and self-confidence To allow people acquiring abilities which are necessary in the daily life, stimulating their interest towards activities arranged within the work group and promoting a constructive discussion with the others. To promote the sense of responsibility and support self-esteem, being aware that the work done is rewarded. Jop Education Project

272 The project will develop in several steps: Project introduction: there will be a first meeting dedicated to the introduction of the proposal, during which adhesions of really motivated people will be picked up; then the project targets and the fulfilment steps will be explained. Training: the steady education of trainees, which is arranged through a personalized and a group phase, is very important. The personalized work foresees the presence of a tutor standing by the person during the job experience and supporting him in his motivation as well as in the critical phases that the job can have. The reference tutor has to intervene in case of problems and to arrange the orientation activity. METHODOLOGY Jop Education Project

273 The group training foresees instead meetings for the job preparation, which are based on the sense of responsibility and on the meaning of work and orientation training. Training course: in addition to theory (which is granted for the whole training period), there are also training courses in the different locals of Anthropos Cooperative Society, in collaboration with Cooperative HEIS Alberovivo (a B-type-cooperative working for the job integration of disabled people). The job opportunities are the following ones: Outside activities (different tasks) Transports Refectory Cleaning Jop Education Project

274 This year for the first time it has been introduced also an integration of five host of us into some small shops of the area in order to grant the education training there: in particular a supermarket, a hairdressing salon, a boutique of flowers and plants, a pharmacy, a pet shop The trainee works from Monday to Saturday for two hours a day under the supervision of his tutor-operator for six months (which can be extended to 12). The project aim is to let our hosts develop first of all the concept of work and then work as engagement, respect of rules and of the joint organization, learning and putting into practice techniques and processes. All that implies the ability to come into play and trying the different tasks, looking for the possibility to understand which job is more indicated according your personal abilities. Jop Education Project

275 Check: it is foreseen during the project and at the end, since it is important all the participants (trainees and tutors) to share the experience that has been done, in order to discuss about positive and critic aspects. This phase develops in both group and personal moments, through filling up check questionnaires. Jop Education Project

276 There are some critic aspects connected to the relation between disability/disadvantage and work. So it was necessary to develop same strategies: Planning monthly meetings for each field (refectory, transport, cleaning), aiming at sharing and solving the problems. It is important to underline that dialogue and flexibility are considered as primary, in order to grant the problem solving through the means of relation; Promoting training courses on different topics, some of them relating to the intervention sectors (information about Cooperative, partner role, quality system, food treatment, cleaning products…..), other ones aiming at increasing professional skills and making the integration between normal and disadvantaged employees easier (effective communication, relationship between normally intelligent employee and disadvantaged employee….); Jop Education Project

277 Supporting disabled employees through normally intelligent employees as tutors able to help them overcoming difficulties and fulfilling their tasks; Constant and specific training of people in charge. Jop Education Project

278 Difficulties: A specific professional figure (the operator for job integration) would be appropriate and this would imply further costs which arent previewed in the above- mentioned contracts; Difficulty to bear the market, since it is necessary to take additional costs that the market does not recognize. Jop Education Project

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