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شبکه های کامپیوتری پیشرفته مطالب درس مروری بر شبکه های کامپیوتری و اینترنت شبکه های گسترده (WAN) ATM MPLS شبکه های بی سیم انتقال بی سیم شبکه های بی سیم.

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Presentation on theme: "شبکه های کامپیوتری پیشرفته مطالب درس مروری بر شبکه های کامپیوتری و اینترنت شبکه های گسترده (WAN) ATM MPLS شبکه های بی سیم انتقال بی سیم شبکه های بی سیم."— Presentation transcript:

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2 شبکه های کامپیوتری پیشرفته

3 مطالب درس مروری بر شبکه های کامپیوتری و اینترنت شبکه های گسترده (WAN) ATM MPLS شبکه های بی سیم انتقال بی سیم شبکه های بی سیم شبکه های MANET, WSN, WMN شبکه های چندرسانه ای (Multimedia) شبکه های نظیر به نظیر (Peer-to-Peer)

4 مروری بر شبکه های کامپیوتری و اینترنت millions of connected computing devices: hosts = end systems running network apps 4 Home network Institutional network Mobile network Global ISP Regional ISP router PC server wireless laptop cellular handheld wired links access points communication links fiber, copper, radio, satellite transmission rate = bandwidth routers: forward packets (chunks of data)

5 A closer look at network structure: network edge: applications and hosts 5 access networks, physical media: wired, wireless communication links network core: interconnected routers network of networks

6 The network edge: end systems (hosts): run application programs e.g. Web, at edge of network 6 client/server peer-peer client/server model client host requests, receives service from always-on server e.g. Web browser/server; client/server peer-peer model: minimal (or no) use of dedicated servers e.g. Skype, BitTorrent

7 Access networks and physical media Q: How to connect end systems to edge router? residential access nets institutional access networks (school, company): LAN mobile access networks Keep in mind: bandwidth (bits per second) of access network? shared or dedicated? 7

8 Local area networks company/univ local area network (LAN) connects end system to edge router Ethernet: 10 Mbs, 100Mbps, 1Gbps, 10Gbps Ethernet modern configuration: end systems connect into Ethernet switch 8

9 Wireless access networks shared wireless access network connects end system to router via base station aka access point wireless LANs: b/g (WiFi): 11 or 54 Mbps wider-area wireless access provided by operators ~1Mbps over cellular system WiMAX (10s Mbps) over wide area 9 base station mobile hosts router

10 The Network Core mesh of interconnected routers the fundamental question: how is data transferred through net? circuit switching: dedicated circuit per call: telephone net packet-switching: data sent thru net in discrete chunks 10

11 Internet protocol stack application: supporting network applications (FTP, SMTP, HTTP) transport: process-process data transfer (TCP, UDP) network: routing of datagrams from source to destination IP, routing protocols link: data transfer between neighboring network elements PPP, Ethernet physical: bits on the wire 11

12 Encapsulation 12 source application transport network link physical HtHt HnHn M segment HtHt datagram destination application transport network link physical HtHt HnHn HlHl M HtHt HnHn M HtHt M M network link physical link physical HtHt HnHn HlHl M HtHt HnHn M HtHt HnHn M HtHt HnHn HlHl M router switch message M HtHt M HnHn frame

13 error control (detection & recovery) 13 EDC= Error Detection and Correction bits (redundancy) D = Data protected by error checking, may include header fields Error detection not 100% reliable! protocol may miss some errors, but rarely larger EDC field yields better detection and correction ARQ: automatic request repeat Stop and Wait Sliding Window

14 Two Key Network-Layer Functions forwarding: move packets from routers input to appropriate router output routing: determine route taken by packets from source to dest. routing algorithms 14

15 value in arriving packets header routing algorithm local forwarding table header value output link Interplay between routing and forwarding

16 Routing Graph abstraction for routing algorithms: graph nodes are routers graph edges are physical links link cost: delay, $ cost, or congestion level 16 Goal: determine good path (sequence of routers) thru network from source to dest. Routing protocol A E D CB F good path: typically means minimum cost path other defs possible

17 Routing: only two approaches used in practice Global: all routers have complete topology, link cost info link state algorithms: use Dijkstras algorithm to find shortest path from given router to all destinations Decentralized: router knows physically-connected neighbors, link costs to neighbors iterative process of computation, exchange of info with neighbors distance vector algorithms a self-stabilizing algorithm (well see these later) 17

18 Addressing: network layer IP address: 32-bit identifier for host, router interface interface: connection between host, router and physical link routers typically have multiple interfaces host may have multiple interfaces IP addresses associated with interface, not host, router =

19 IP Addressing IP address: network part (high order bits) host part (low order bits) whats a network ? ( from IP address perspective) device interfaces with same network part of IP address can physically reach each other without intervening router network consisting of 3 IP networks (for IP addresses starting with 223, first 24 bits are network address) LAN

20 LANs bus topology popular through mid 90s today: star topology prevails active switch in center, each spoke runs a (separate) Ethernet protocol wireless LANS: bus: coaxial cable switch star shared RF (e.g., WiFi)

21 LAN Addresses 21 Each adapter on LAN has unique LAN address (also has an IP address) LAN (or MAC or physical) address: used to get datagram from one interface to another physically- connected interface (same network) 48 bit MAC address (for most LANs) burned in the adapter ROM Question: why separate MAC and IP addresses?

22 ARP: Address Resolution Protocol Each IP node (host, router) on LAN has ARP table ARP table: IP/MAC address mappings for some LAN nodes TTL (Time To Live): time after which address mapping will be forgotten (typically 20 min) 22 Question: how to determine MAC address of B knowing Bs IP address? 1A-2F-BB AD D7-FA-20-B0 0C-C4-11-6F-E F7-2B LAN

23 ARP protocol: Same LAN (network) A wants to send datagram to B, and Bs MAC address not in As ARP table. A broadcasts ARP query packet, containing B's IP address dest MAC address = FF-FF- FF-FF-FF-FF all machines on LAN receive ARP query B receives ARP packet, replies to A with its (B's) MAC address frame sent to As MAC address (unicast) A caches (saves) IP-to-MAC address pair in its ARP table until information becomes old (times out) soft state: information that times out (goes away) unless refreshed ARP is plug-and-play: nodes create their ARP tables without intervention from net administrator 23

24 Addressing: routing to another LAN walkthrough: send datagram from A to B via R assume A knows Bs IP address two ARP tables in router R, one for each IP network (LAN) 24 R 1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B E6-E BB-4B CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D A C-E8-FF B2-2F-54-1A-0F B BD-D2-C7-56-2A

25 A creates IP datagram with source A, destination B A uses ARP to get Rs MAC address for A creates link-layer frame with R's MAC address as dest, frame contains A-to-B IP datagram As NIC sends frame Rs NIC receives frame R removes IP datagram from Ethernet frame, sees its destined to B R uses ARP to get Bs MAC address R creates frame containing A-to-B IP datagram sends to B 25 R 1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B E6-E BB-4B CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D A C-E8-FF B2-2F-54-1A-0F B BD-D2-C7-56-2A This is a really important example – make sure you understand!

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