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Gd:sf / 1. sDKo'6/ kmG8fd]G6n Oltxf; cjfs; M #))) lj=P;= cufl8 rLgaf6 pTklQ ePsf]. g]lko/;{ jf]g M !^!$ P=l8= :sl6s;\ ul0ft1 hf]g g]lko/ n] k|ltkfbg u/]sf.

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Presentation on theme: "Gd:sf / 1. sDKo'6/ kmG8fd]G6n Oltxf; cjfs; M #))) lj=P;= cufl8 rLgaf6 pTklQ ePsf]. g]lko/;{ jf]g M !^!$ P=l8= :sl6s;\ ul0ft1 hf]g g]lko/ n] k|ltkfbg u/]sf."— Presentation transcript:

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2 sDKo'6/ kmG8fd]G6n Oltxf; cjfs; M #))) lj=P;= cufl8 rLgaf6 pTklQ ePsf]. g]lko/;{ jf]g M !^!$ P=l8= :sl6s;\ ul0ft1 hf]g g]lko/ n] k|ltkfbg u/]sf. :nfO8 ?n M !^!& P=l8 df ljlnod cf}68{n] k|ltkfbg u/]sf. kf:snfO{g M !^$@ P=l8 df km|]Gr ul0ft1 Jn]O; kf:snn] k|ltkfbg u/]sf. n]JgfOh SofNs'n]l6+ d]l;g M !^&! P=l8=df hd{g lkmnf];km/ uf]6km|fO8 ef]g n]AgfOhn] k|ltkfbg u/]sf. l8km|]G6 OlGhg M !*@# P=l8= df SoflDa|h o'lgel;{l6sf ul0ft1 rfln{ Jofj]hn] tof/ kf/]sf. Pgflnl6sn OlGhg M !*@# P=l8= df SoflDa|h o'lgel;{l6sf ul0ft1 rfln{ Jofj]hn] tof/ kf/]sf. 2 Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik"

3 Charles Babbage and his machines 3 Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" Analytical Engine Difference Engine Charles Babbage

4 4 Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" AbacusNapier's BonesThe Slide Rule Pascaline Leibniz's Calculating Machine

5 Lady Auguast Ada Lovelace One of the great supporters of Charles Babbage was Lady Augusta Ada (The daughter of famous poet, Lord Byron). She convinced Babbage to use binary concept in his Analytical Engine. She had some programs to use in Analytical Engine. The First Programmer in hostory of Computer. Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 5

6 Dr. Herman Hollerith In 1880s, he designs a system to record census data. The information is stored as holes in cards, which are interpreted by machines with electrical sensors. It eventually bacame IBM (International Business Machine). Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 6

7 Haward Aiken and his Machine Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 7 In the late 1930s next important event was added in the History of computer. The electromachanical computer was born with the development of MAEK-I in 1944 by Howard Aiken with the help of IBM. The MARK-I could process number up to 32 digits long. MARK-I was 51 ft long, 8 ft high, 3 ft wide and sued 18,000 vacuum tubes. This consisted of 7 lakh 50 thousand parts. The wire used was nearly 500 miles long. It took 1 second to perform 3 mathematical operations.

8 Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator (ENIAC) In 1947, J. Preser Eckert and John Mauchly with the help of Atanasoff and Berry design and build the ENIAC. 18,000 vacuum tubes were used in ENIAC. There were 70,000 resistors, 10,000 condensers and 6,000 switches. It weighed 30 tones and occupied a space 3,000 cubic feet. It could calculate 300 times faster than any calcuting devicce at that time. It was based on decimal number syste. Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 8 J. Presper Eckert John Mauchly

9 Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) In 1949, the first electronic computer was developed by John Mauchly and John Presper Eckert with the help of A. Burks, Goldstine and Neumann. This machine was used to store the data and information as well as the instructions. This computer operated electronically. Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 9

10 Universal Accounting Computer (UNIVAC) John Mauchly and Eckert Founded their own company in 1946 and begain to work on the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC). General-purpose commercial computer in 1951 It was the first commercially used electronic computer in the world. In 1958, the first computer to use the transistor as a switching device, the IBM 7090, is introduced. In 1964, the first computer to used Integrate circuits, the IBM 360 is announced. In 1975, the first Microcomputer, the Altair, is introduced. In the same year, the first Supercomputer, the Cray-1 is announced. Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 10

11 In 1976, Digital Equipment Corporation introduces its popular Minicomputer, the DEC VAX 11/780. In 1977, Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs establish the company Apple Computers. In 1979-82, Bjame Stoustrup of Bell Laboratories in New Jersey introduces "C with Classes". In 1984, Apple introduces the Machintosh, the first widely available computer with a "User-Friendly" graphical interface using icons, Windows and a mouse device. In 1989, Microsoft Corporation introduces Windows for IBM Computers. The WWW was developed at CERN in Switzerland as a new form of communicating text and graphics across the INTERNET Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 11

12 Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 12 Universal Automatic Computer IBM 7090

13 Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 13 IBM 360Cray-1 Minicomputer Supercomputer Apple Computer Machinetosh

14 Characteristics of Computer Speed and Accuracy Capabilities 1 Milisecond = 1/1000 th of a second (10 -3 ) 1 Microsecond = 1/1000000 th of a second (10 -6 ) 1 Nanosecond= 1/1000000000 th of a second (10 -9 ) 1 Pico Second= 1/1000000000000 th of a second (10 - 12 ) 1 Festo Second= 1/1000000000000000 th of a second (10 -15 ) Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 14

15 Storage Capability 0,1= 1 Bit 4 Bits= 1 Nibble 8 Bits= 1 Byte 1 Byte= 1 Character 1024 Byte= 1 KB 2 10 Byte 1024 Kilo Byte= 1 MB 2 10 KB 1024 Mega Byte= 1 GB 2 10 MB 1024 Giga Byte= 1 TB 2 10 GB 1024 Tera Byte= 1 HB 2 10 TB Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 15

16 Versatility Versatility is an ability to perform various task releatd to different fields like Science and Technology, Businiss, Education etc. A computer can process any kind of data. Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 16

17 Diligence Diligence is a capacity of performing repeated operation without any tiredness and any mistakes. A computer is capable of performing the required task continuously with the same speed, accuracy and efficiently without any error. Computer never gets tired, bored and laziness to do the task. Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 17

18 Generation of Computer Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 18

19 First Generation 1946 to 1958 In 1946, The First computer is Universal Automatic Computer. ENIAC, UNIVAC I, IBM 650 are examples. Vacuum tubes were used for electronic circuits. Storage capacity was limited 1 KB to 4 KB. Slow processing speed in Mili Second. Large in Size eg. 1500 suare feet. Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 19

20 Second Generation 1959 to 1964 Examples : IBM 1400, IBM 7000, Control Data 3600, MARK-I, Transistors were used instead of Vacuum Tube. Processing speed is faster than FGC eg. Micro Second. Smaller in Sizt than FGC eg. 51 square feet. The input and output devices were faster. Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 20

21 Third Generation 1964 to 1974 Examples: IBM 360, UNIVAC 1108, UNIVAC 9000 Ics were used in place of Transistor. Processing speed is faster than SGC eg. Nano Second. Mini computers were introduced during TG. Storage capacity increased in Mega Byte. Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 21

22 Fourth Generation 1975 to 1990 Examples: IBM Pcs, Aver, Gateways, Apple. VLSI and Microprocessor are used. Processing speed is very high in Pico Second. Storage capacity was very high in Giga Byte. Very smaller size varies from a desktop to a laptop. Input-Output devices were versatile. Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 22

23 Fifth Generation 1990 to incomplete…………….. Intelligent programming. High performance multiprocessor system. Easy Human-Computer interfaces They will be used BIO CHIPS, ULSI (Ultra Larg Scale Integration). Computer will undersatnd natural language. They have Artifical Intelligence. Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 23

24 How to computer Works? Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 24

25 How to Computer Works? Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 25

26 How to Computer Works? Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 26

27 How to Computer Works? Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 27

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70 Thank you For Help narayan@nepalwireless.net sharma_pathik@yahoo.com http://www.nepalwireless.com.np/mustang http://www.mustangwifi.blogspot.com http://www.ddcmustang.gov.np http://www.nepalwireless.net 9857650123 9846070674 Computer Fundamental------------------------------------------------------By Narayan "Pathik" 70


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