Presentation on theme: "A Multiple Case Study on The Impact of Teacher Professional Development for Online Teaching on Face-to- Face Classroom Teaching Practices Julia Lynn Parra."— Presentation transcript:
A Multiple Case Study on The Impact of Teacher Professional Development for Online Teaching on Face-to- Face Classroom Teaching Practices Julia Lynn Parra For Virtual School Symposium 2009 November 17, 2009
PURPOSE OF STUDY The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study is to understand and describe the impact of teacher professional development for online teaching and learning on face-to- face teaching practices.
OTLO Program* The People: RETA, Teachers, Tech Support, Admin The Content: Orientation, Courses, Webinars & Webmeetings, Standards, Rubrics, Templates The VLE: eLearning Ecosystem, Community, Mentoring OTLO Program* The People: RETA, Teachers, Tech Support, Admin The Content: Orientation, Courses, Webinars & Webmeetings, Standards, Rubrics, Templates The VLE: eLearning Ecosystem, Community, Mentoring Rival Explanations Teacher Characteristics: Level of Education Teacher Licensure Level Amount of PD Rival Explanations Teacher Characteristics: Level of Education Teacher Licensure Level Amount of PD Online OTL Outcomes Quality Online Course Development Quality Online Teaching Online OTL Outcomes Quality Online Course Development Quality Online Teaching F2F Teaching Outcomes ? F2F Teaching Outcomes ? Information about needs and results of OTL Professional Development *Online Teaching and Learning Opportunities (OTLO) Program
Overarching Question How did professional development for online teaching and learning, provided by the Online Teaching and Learning Opportunities (OTLO) program, impact teachers and their face-to-face teaching practices?
Research Questions 1. What were the changes in the teachers' face-to-face classroom teaching practices as a result of participating in teacher professional development for online teaching and learning provided by the (OTLO) program? 2. What were the strategies and related technologies that these teachers adopted from OTLO professional development for online teaching to improve their face-to-face teaching practices and face-to- face classrooms? 3. How did changes in classroom-based teaching practices occur? What was the process, (the journey) in changing their face-to-face practice? What occurred during professional development for online teaching and learning to change face-to-face teaching practices?
Research Approach Multiple-case study (teacher = unit of analysis = case) Qualitative Comparative a.k.a. cross-case analysis Inductive data analysis Grounded theory
Research Design Unit of Analysis = OTLO Teacher 3 types of data collection - Teacher Survey, Teacher Interviews (external researchers were utilized), Teacher artifact collection 19 OTLO teachers possible, 13 survey respondents 6 purposively selected cases Pilot case study Case study analysis Comparative analysis
1.March 5, 2009 - Study received approval from dissertation committee. 2.May 12, 2009 - Study received IRB approval. 3.May 18, 2009 - Potential teacher participants were provided overview of research study and complete information about voluntary participation and informed consent documentation. 4.May 18 thru May 22, 2009 – Researcher gathered informed consent documentation. 5.May 23 - Teacher survey was emailed to the OTLO teacher participants. 6.June 3, 2009 - Pilot interview was conducted and artifacts requested. 7.June 16 thru June 18 - Remaining teacher interviews were conducted and artifacts requested. Data Collection Timeline
Teacher Survey Analysis Reliability: Survey reviewed by 2 colleagues and Dr. Susan Lowes Purposive Sampling Questions added from Interview based on Prelims Committee Feedback 13/19 teachers took the survey
Question added from Interview What are the technologies that you have adopted/transferred from OTLO professional development to your face-to- face teaching practices and face-to-face classrooms? In the essay boxes please provide any specific uses, strategies, and best practices that accompany your technology use.
Case Studies/Comparative Analysis 6 case studies/6 case study participants selected by purposive sampling Pilot study included, 4 case studies based on replication logic, 1 no responder included per research design (theoretical replication potential but interview led to another literal replication case study) Reliability: Interview transcripts & case studies were reviewed by a colleague for accuracy Matrix created for comparative analysis Note:: Helpful article - Eisenhardt, E. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review. 14(4). 532-550.
Research Sub-Question 1 What were the changes in the teachers' face-to-face classroom teaching practices as a result of participating in teacher professional development for online teaching and learning provided by the (OTLO) program?
Research Sub-Question 1 Answers Increase in uses of technology and technology- based instruction in face-to-face teaching practices. Designing Instruction > use of technology tools; lesson planning including student activities and homework; standards and benchmarks; lesson presentation; and grading and assessment. Technology and Pedagogy > differentiated instruction and student-centered instruction
Research Sub-Question 2 Research Sub-Question 2: What were the strategies and related technologies that these teachers adopted from OTLO professional development for online teaching to improve their face-to-face teaching practices and face-to-face classrooms?
Research Sub-Question 2 Answers All survey respondents experienced adoption or transfer of new technologies such as audio/video tools, Moodle, wikis, blogs, avatars, and social bookmarking in their face- to-face classroom. Additionally, as a result of this study, a variety of specific uses, strategies, and best practices were identified.
Research Sub-Question 3: How did changes in classroom-based teaching practices occur? What was the process, (the journey) in changing their face-to-face practice? What occurred during professional development for online teaching and learning to change face-to-face teaching practices? Research Sub-Question 3
Research Sub-Question 3 Answers Unique journeys All experienced changes Common experiences: online workshops and webinars; community; the online course development process; and characteristics of the program and program developers.
How did professional development for online teaching and learning, provided by the Online Teaching and Learning Opportunities (OTLO) program, impact teachers and their face-to-face teaching practices? Overarching Question
Overarching Question Answers Impact on teachers included: Changes in thinking and attitude; Personal uses of technology; Professional uses of technology; and uses of technology and technology- based instruction in face-to-face teaching practices.
Implications for Teacher Education and Teacher Professional Development Programs Professional development for online teaching and learning needs to be incorporated into the programs that teach our new teachers and the programs that support our existing teachers.
In the words of one of the Case Study Participants: I think that maybe in their teacher training now, the ones who are going … I really think that they need to have some experience, either, they have to have so many online courses in order to graduate, they have to – it has to be part of their teacher training to address these new ways. And Im not sure all universities are doing that.
Research Contribution New technologies call for new research in the field of Distance Education
The question of the relative efficacy of online and face-to-face instruction needs to be revisited, however, in light of todays online learning applications, which can take advantage of a wide range of Web resources, including not only multimedia but also Web-based applications and new collaboration technologies. These forms of online learning are a far cry from the televised broadcasts and videoconferencing that characterized earlier generations of distance education. Moreover, interest in hybrid approaches that blend in-class and online activities is increasing. Policy-makers and practitioners want to know about the effectiveness of Internet-based, interactive online learning approaches and need information about the conditions under which online learning is effective.
3 Major Contributions 1.Comprehensive Literature Review 2.Identified the impact of professional development for online teaching and learning on teachers F2F practices 3.Elements of professional development identified as important in helping teachers experience change
1. Literature Review review of educational theories and approaches; review of teacher change and tools utilized in measuring teacher change ; overview of K-12 Online Teaching and Learning including its historical context within the field of distance education and its unique terminology with definitions; a review of online teaching and learning theories, models, and standards; the research and standards available for teacher professional development for online teaching and learning; and the research on the impact of professional development for online teaching and learning on teachers face-to-face classroom practices.
2. Impact & Changes Teachers experienced changes in attitude. They enjoyed teaching and had fun with students to the extent that teacher and student roles were changing. Teachers learned from their students. Teachers experienced changes in personal uses of technology. Teachers experienced changes in professional uses of technology. Teachers changed in their uses of technology and technology-based instruction in their face-to-face classrooms. Teachers made changes in designing instruction.
2. Impact & Changes (cont.) Teachers changed their use of technology with students. Teachers experienced changes in thinking including the recognition that change was actually needed. Teachers made changes in lesson planning. Teachers made changes in the use of standards and benchmarks. Teachers made changes in lesson presentation and direct instruction. Teachers made changes in grading and assessment. Teachers evidenced changed pedagogical approaches.
3. Important PD Elements include: the blended approach of face-to-face workshops and online workshops (called webinars in the OTLO program); the development of a supportive, encouraging, welcoming community of professionals at different levels of experience; the use of strategies such as exposure, demonstrating, modeling, mentoring, the uses of examples, hands-on use of technology, and immersion; and the online course development process including the peer review process.
In Conclusion If teachers are to be expected to change how they teach todays students, then the expectations for those who teach teachers and provide professional development for teachers needs to change as well. If teachers are expected to teach using 21 st Century tools like computers, handheld devices, web-based technologies, etc., then they must be provided with access and exposure to these tools. If teachers are expected to teach using innovative 21 st Century teaching theories, strategies, and techniques such building learning communities, using a learner-centered approach, modeling appropriate uses of technology, etc., then again, they must be provided with the learning opportunities that build learning communities, use a learner-centered approach, and model appropriate uses of technology.
Recommendations that support teacher transformation and build 21 st Century classrooms Colleges of education and professional development organizations must ensure that preservice and inservice teachers have access and exposure to the Internet and current technologies including desktop computers, laptop computers, handheld and mobile devices, and web-based technologies. Colleges of education and professional development organizations need to provide courses, programs, and professional development that focus on online teaching and learning.
Courses, programs, and professional development for online teaching and learning need to include: learning environments that are learner-centered, community- centered, knowledge-centered, and assessment-centered; blended approaches of face-to-face and online learning opportunities; online synchronous activities such as chats, small group webconferencing, and large group webconferencing; the development and fostering of professional learning communities; the development and fostering of personal learning networks; the use of Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, wikis, social bookmarking, and audio/video tools; the use of strategies such as exposure, demonstration, modeling, mentoring, examples, hands-on activities, problem-solving, and immersion; and an online course development process including the use of checklists, standards, and peer review.
Further Investigation is needed: about the community aspect of such programs; to determine how much time is needed for teacher change to occur; to determine the impact of professional development for online teaching and learning on students, other teachers, and other staff such as educational assistants and technology coordinators; to understand the impact of professional development for online teaching and learning on younger teachers and on teachers with lesser educational experience, as well as pre-service teachers; and To determine types of technologies and ratio of technology needed per student.
Joe Ray – It's for the nerds! I was very adamant, when I first started, I didn't think this was right for me, not suited for me, I'm a traditional style teacher, there was no way this was going to work for me. You know, technology is good for some people. I'll use the words, I hope I don't offend anybody, but, it's for the nerds. It's for the nerds! I'm not a nerd. I'm not a computer geek, and that's not gonna work for me, and that's okay. You know, it's not suited for everybody. A Favorite Moment
I think the hardest change has to come from the teacher within, you have to allow yourself more avenues to teach and to reach the students. The age-old adage, we're gonna read it, we'll discuss it, we'll assess. Now there's other ways to do this. Now we can actually create a class online. Students can actually immerse themselves in your online class. We can still do that but in the 21st Century thinking. So in a sense, I think I changed. So far, I have changed. Joe Ray